The world is increasingly facing a technologically changing employment landscape and such changes are directly affecting the future demand for skills. For regional economies built on labour migration, the impending changes will affect migrants and their families, their countries of origin and the recruitment systems they are attached to – and ultimately disrupt the development benefits of migration. This paper investigates how the future of the employment landscape will affect migration within the Abu Dhabi Dialogue, a regional consultative process for migration in Asia. It investigates the impending changes in the demand for skills in countries of destination, how such changes will affect migration processes and whether countries of origin are ready for the changes. It provides recommendations on how regional consultative processes can foster dialogue between key actors from both countries of origin and destination to better navigate future changes and ensure a smooth transition.

The global COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant negative impact on the economies of Central Asia. This updated policy note reports on the latest developments in the region and looks ahead to identify the key challenges likely to be faced by the region’s policy makers in the short-to medium-term. It examines five major economic challenges facing countries as they recover from the COVID-19 crisis –debt sustainability, migration, job retention, private sector fragility, and lack of connectivity –and proposes ways forward.

In May 2016, the World Humanitarian Summit represented a turning point for humanitarian policies. The Summit gave the impetus to seriously reflect on how to operate in environments where people’s needs don’t coincide anymore with existing mandates and sectors. The OECD believes that an effective humanitarian response is the one that addresses affected people’s needs in a timely and efficient manner. One way to measure effectiveness is to ask aid beneficiaries what they think about the aid they get. With this is mind, the OECD initiated a first round of surveys during the cycle 2016-2017 in six countries affected by different type of crisis : Lebanon, Afghanistan, Haiti, Iraq, Somalia and Uganda. Two years after the World humanitarian Summit, the OECD and Ground Truth Solutions took another round of surveys in the same countries, plus Bangladesh. The purpose of this second round of surveys is to assess whether the commitments made at the World Humanitarian Summit, including the Grand Bargain, are having a tangible impact on people’s lives in the most difficult contexts in the world. This paper provides some answers to this question.

This working paper is a case study on Afghanistan as a refugee country of origin. The case study looks at whole-of-government efforts by OECD member countries in Afghanistan, specifically looking at how states have co-ordinated development, diplomatic and defence resources in a refugee country of origin. The case study also examines efforts by the international community to promote stability and state building objectives. The case study was undertaken as part of a wider research project on learning from evaluations to improve responses to situations of forced displacement and supports the synthesis paper "Responding to Refugee Crises in Developing Countries: What Can We Learn From Evaluations?"

Displacement is at a historic high, with over 65 million individuals currently displaced. The world is facing a refugee crisis that is unprecedented in scale. A large number of evaluations look at different aspects of programming in response to refugee crises in developing countries. This paper covers the key areas and priority topics related to forced displacement identified by the Development Assisstance Committee Temporary Working Group on Refugees and Migration. It draws from evaluation findings to highlight key lessons and recommendations for positive change going forward.

Key topics covered in the paper include: lessons on bridging the gap between humanitarian and development programming; efforts to strengthen international response to protracted crises; lessons on whole-of-government approaches in refugee contexts; learning from work in urban settings; improving access to employment and quality education; new financing mechanisms for refugee crises in middle income countries; and lessons on financing in response to the Syria crisis. The paper highlights the evaluation work of DAC members and aims to help strengthen the evidence base to improve response to situations of displacement in developing countries.

This report reviews the implementation in Afghanistan of the Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations two years after they were endorsed by ministers of the OECD Development Assistance Committee, and identifies priority areas to improve the collective impact of international engagement. The Afghanistan Country Report reflects the findings from a national consultation among stakeholders representing both national and international institutions, complemented by interviews and data collection.

Afghan women are among the most vulnerable in the world. Under the Taliban regime, women and girls were systematically discriminated against and marginalised, and their human rights were violated. Women and girls were also severely restricted in their access to education, health care facilities and employment.

This chapter explores a number of examples of contracting out in Afghanistan. The lessons elaborated in this report stem from a number of sectors, including finance, aid effectiveness and justice. Several important recommendations are drawn, which can support other post-conflict and fragile states to strengthen the delivery of government services to their citizens.

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