Études économiques consacrées périodiquement par l'OCDE à l’économie de la Belgique. Chaque étude analyse les grands enjeux auxquels le pays fait face. Elle examine les perspectives à court terme et présente des recommandations détaillées à l’intention des décideurs politiques. Des chapitres thématiques analysent des enjeux spécifiques. Les tableaux et graphiques contiennent un large éventail de données statistiques.


OECD’s periodic surveys of the Belgian economy. Each edition surveys the major challenges faced by the country, evaluates the short-term outlook, and makes specific policy recommendations. Special chapters take a more detailed look at specific challenges. Extensive statistical information is included in charts and graphs.

  • 26 Oct 2023
  • OECD, Korea Institute of Public Finance
  • ページ数: 220

This report addresses housing inequities through a series of analytical chapters and case studies. The cross-country chapters examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on housing demand, develop a proposal for a green land value tax, evaluate the dynamics between fiscal autonomy and housing supply responsiveness, as well as explore the drivers of inter-regional migration. The case studies unravel the changes of Korea's progressive national property tax and a programme to address regional imbalances, assess the impact of the US property tax system on housing, dive into Norway's property taxation in relation to inequality, as well as survey Belgium's approaches to housing policy. With a blend of empirical data and critical analysis, the report underscores the pressing need for comprehensive strategies in addressing housing inequities. It also offers insights for policymakers and scholars, highlighting the complex balance between national and local housing policies.

EU Funded Note

This Review assesses the Federal Planning Bureau (FPB) and its institutional, operational and analytical performance as an independent fiscal institution. The FPB’s responsibilities have been growing and this Review provides insights into how effectively the institution continues to serve the needs of its stakeholders. As part of this, it looks at the Bureau’s performance related to its new mandate to undertake election budgetary costings and impact assessment, carried out for the first time in relation to the 2019 election.

  • 12 Oct 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 158

The Brussels-Capital Region has witnessed significant improvements in its labour market over the past decade. Local job creation has been driven by ample opportunities for highly-skilled workers whom the Brussels-Capital Region attracts from its surrounding regions, the European Union, and beyond. However, not all of the region’s population has seen their labour market prospects improve equally. Many workers with lower levels of education continue to compete for a small number of vacancies, despite the increasingly tightening labour market.

A future vision for the Brussels-Capital Region, therefore, needs to be built on recognising and addressing the multiple and often distinct challenges faced by its young and diverse population. In a labour market that offers high rewards for skills formation, tailoring continuous education and training offerings to different groups while removing barriers to participation in such programmes will need to take priority. Simplifying processes for accessing employment services, streamlining labour market policies, supporting the geographic mobility of less-educated jobseekers, and removing barriers to employment for its migrant population could serve as building blocks to increase labour force participation and improve the employment quality of all local talent.

  • 12 Oct 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 173

Au cours de la dernière décennie, le marché du travail de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale s’est amélioré. De nombreuses offres de travail ouvrent des possibilités pour des travailleurs hautement qualifiés, faisant de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale une destination importante pour les talents belges, européens et internationaux. Or, malgré les perspectives de carrière offertes par la région, un nombre important de résidents est exclu du monde du travail. Les travailleurs moins diplômés se font concurrence pour un nombre de postes limités, en dépit des pénuries observées sur le marché du travail.

Les facteurs qui mènent à l’exclusion de certains bruxellois et les solutions pour y remédier, doivent être un pilier de toute vision d’avenir de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale. Le marché du travail bruxellois récompense la formation. Faciliter l’accès aux formations disponibles en Région est donc une priorité, notamment pour qu’elles soient adaptées aux différents besoins de la population. Réduire les entraves à la formation est un autre levier d’action. Pour le service public de l'emploi, la simplification des parcours, la mobilité géographique des chercheurs d’emplois moins diplômés et une meilleure prise en compte de la dimension migratoire de l'exclusion peuvent, chacune à leur manière, aider un plus grand nombre de bruxellois à trouver un emploi de qualité.


The Flemish Community of Belgium has one of the OECD’s most devolved education systems, but there are concerns among Flemish education stakeholders about the overall quality of education. In recent years, the Flemish government has initiated a series of reforms to strengthen the quality of education. These include the introduction of full cohort standardised student assessments in Dutch and mathematics. Students will take the assessments in Grades 4 and 6 at the primary level and in Grades 8 and 12 at the secondary level starting in 2024. This ambitious and innovative reform aims to strengthen and monitor the quality of education, with student results envisaged to inform improvement efforts at different levels of the system. As a follow up to the support provided by the OECD Strategic Education Governance Project, the Flemish Department of Education and Training asked the OECD Implementing Education Policies Project team to support the successful design and implementation of the standardised student assessment reform. This report presents the analysis, key findings and recommendations to help realise this objective.

Flanders experienced large inflows of immigrants over the past decade, coming from an increasingly diverse range of countries, with growth rates outpacing the Netherlands, France and Germany, as well as Belgium as a whole. While integration outcomes have improved in recent years, some of the core indicators remain unfavourable in international comparison, especially for non-EU immigrant women, refugees, and youth with migrant parents. Against this backdrop, Flanders has developed a comprehensive integration policy. This review, the fourth in the series Working Together for Integration, provides an in-depth analysis of the Flemish integration system, highlighting its strengths, weaknesses, and potential areas for improvement. Earlier reviews in this series looked at integration in Sweden (2016), Finland (2018) and Norway (2022).

This paper investigates the demand for language skills using data on online job vacancies in 27 European Union member countries and the United Kingdom in 2021. Evidence indicates that although Europe remains a linguistically diverse labour market, knowing English confers unique advantages in certain occupations. Across countries included in the analyses, a knowledge of English was explicitly required in 22% of all vacancies and English was the sixth most required skill overall. A knowledge of German, Spanish, French and Mandarin Chinese was explicitly demanded in between 1% and 2% of all vacancies. One in two positions advertised on line for managers or professionals required some knowledge of English, on average across European Union member countries and across OECD countries in the sample. This compares with only one in ten positions for skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and among elementary occupations.

  • 13 Jun 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 100

This reliable and up-to-date source of OECD quarterly balance of payments and international merchandise trade statistics provides a detailed insight into the most recent trends in trading patterns for OECD countries with the rest of the world. Balance of payments data are presented adjusted for seasonal variations. International trade data are broken down by country. The series shown cover data for the last ten quarters and two years available. This quarterly publication is divided into three parts: I. Balance of payments and international trade, II. International merchandise trade by country and III. International trade by commodity (annual data). The third part is a special topic which changes with each publication.

  • 15 May 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 140

In the face of what has increasingly been referred to as an ongoing “permacrisis”, governments must cope with and respond to emerging threats while already grappling with longstanding issues such as climate change, digital disruption and low levels of trust. In this context, understanding new approaches and spreading successful ideas has never been more important. To promote this, the OECD Observatory of Public Sector Innovation (OPSI) has analysed 1 084 innovative initiatives from 94 countries to derive and understand novel government practices. The report discusses four key trends: 1) new forms of accountability for a new era of government, 2) new approaches to care, 3) new methods for preserving identities and strengthening equity and 4) new ways of engaging citizens and residents. Ten case studies and dozens of supporting examples illustrate these trends.

This dataset contains tax revenue collected by Belgium. It provides detailed tax revenues by sector (Supranational, Federal or Central Government, State or Lander Government, Local Government, and Social Security Funds) and by specific tax, such as capital gains, profits and income, property, sales, etc.


This paper provides an analysis of the Belgian federal government’s practices regarding the institutionalisation, quality and impact of policy evaluations. The paper takes a holistic approach, which not only looks at individual practices, but also at how those can come together so that evaluation becomes an integral part of the policy cycle.

Public policy evaluation promotes evidence-informed policymaking and ensures that policies improve outcomes by bringing an understanding of what works, why, for whom, and under what circumstances. Evaluation is also a core tool of sound public financial management, as it helps governments spend better and promotes accountability and transparency in spending. The paper proposes concrete policy recommendations for improving the Belgian federal government’s evaluation system.

This dataset includes pension funds statistics with OECD classifications by type of pension plans and by type of pension funds. All types of plans are included (occupational and personal, mandatory and voluntary). The OECD classification considers both funded and book reserved pension plans that are workplace-based (occupational pension plans) or accessed directly in retail markets (personal pension plans). Both mandatory and voluntary arrangements are included. The data includes plans where benefits are paid by a private sector entity (classified as private pension plans by the OECD) as well as those paid by a funded public sector entity. Data are presented in various measures depending on the variable: millions of national currency, millions of USD, thousands or unit.
This dataset comprises statistics pertaining to pensions indicators.It includes indicators such as occupational pension funds’asset as a % of GDP, personal pension funds’ asset as a % of GDP, DC pension plans’assets as a % of total assets. Pension fund and plan types are classified according to the OECD classification. Three dimensions cover this classification: pension plan type, definition type and contract type.

The Pensions at a Glance database includes reliable and internationally comparable statistics on public and mandatory and voluntary pensions. It covers 34 OECD countries and aims to cover all G20 countries. Pensions at a Glance reviews and analyses the pension measures enacted or legislated in OECD countries. It provides an in-depth review of the first layer of protection of the elderly, first-tier pensions across countries and provideds a comprehensive selection of pension policy indicators for all OECD and G20 countries.

Les politiques d’entrepreneuriat plus inclusives contribuent à l’innovation, la création d’emploi, et la croissance économique. La crise du COVID-19, a accentué les disparités en Wallonie et la région porte un intérêt croissant à renforcer le soutien à l’entrepreneuriat inclusif de groupes particulièrement désavantagés, notamment celui des immigrés et des personnes en situation de handicap. Ce rapport résume les conclusions d'un projet d’examen de la politique d'entrepreneuriat inclusif de la Wallonie. Il présente une analyse des forces et des faiblesses du système de soutien aux entrepreneurs immigrés ou en situation de handicap (aussi appelés « handipreneurs ») en Wallonie et propose des actions politiques concrètes qui permettraient d’améliorer le soutien offert à ces entrepreneurs. L’analyse est basée sur le cadre conceptuel et les outils développés par l’OCDE et la Commission Européenne, notamment l’outil « Better Entrepreneurship Policy Tool ». Le rapport s’appuie également sur la consultation d’un large panel d’acteurs locaux, un travail de recherche approfondi et une analyse de bonnes pratiques internationales.

This dataset contains data on metropolitan regions with demographic, labour, innovation and economic statistics by population, regional surface, population density, labour force, employment, unemployment, GDP, GDP per capita, PCT patent applications, and elderly dependency ratio.

This dataset comprises statistics on different transactions and balances to get from the GDP to the net lending/borrowing. It includes national disposable income (gross and net), consumption of fixed capital as well as net savings. It also includes transaction components such as net current transfers and net capital transfers. Data are expressed in millions of national currency as well as US dollars and available in both current and constant prices. Data are provided from 1950 onwards.

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the standard measure of the value of final goods and services produced by a country during a period minus the value of imports. This subset of Aggregate National Accounts comprises comprehensive statistics on gross domestic product (GDP) by presenting the three different approaches of its measure of GDP: output based GDP, expenditure based GDP and income based GDP. These three different measures of gross domestic product (GDP) are further detailed by transactions whereby: the output approach includes gross value added at basic prices, taxes less subsidies, statistical discrepancy; the expenditure approach includes domestic demand, gross capital formation, external balance of goods and services; and the income approach includes variables such as compensation of employees, gross operating surplus, taxes and production and imports. Gross domestic product (GDP) data are measured in national currency and are available in current prices, constant prices and per capita starting from 1950 onwards.


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