This paper aims at supporting Lebanon in developing a tailored public procurement risk management strategy based on its national context and international good practices. It highlights the relevance of a risk management approach in public procurement and provides the country with practical steps to develop a public procurement risk management strategy, in accordance with the principles of the 2015 OECD Recommendation on Public Procurement.

Young people have demonstrated resilience to shocks and led positive change in their communities across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Young people (aged under 30) constitute more than half (55%) of the population across MENA, compared with 36% of the population across OECD countries. While challenges vary significantly across the region, youth unemployment rates are among the highest in the world, young people tend to express low trust in public institutions, and nearly four in ten live in fragile and conflicted-affected areas. The COVID-19 crisis has underscored the need to place the needs of young people at the centre of an inclusive and resilient recovery. To support this process, this report analyses current governance arrangements and practices across 10  MENA governments in three areas: 1) uniting all government stakeholders to implement a shared, integrated youth policy and deliver services to young people; 2) building administrative and institutional capacities to mainstream the perspectives of young people in policy making; and 3) encouraging the participation and representation of young people and youth stakeholders in public and political life.

This paper empirically tests whether individual-level informality status is linked to a weak social contract, as measured through individual perceptions of its various aspects. Accounting for workers’ heterogeneity and a possible simultaneity between informality status and attitudes towards institutions, the paper shows that informal workers are systematically more dissatisfied with the social contract, as compared to formal workers. The paper enriches the literature by looking at a broad range of aspects of the social contract. The results show that informality is associated with a lower level of confidence in labour unions, in parliament, in civil services; a lower satisfaction with the healthcare system, the way the government performs its duties, the quality of healthcare, and the city setting. The paper concludes with some policy implications.

Public communication is an essential element of government policy and crucial for transparency, integrity, accountability and stakeholder participation. This OECD Review analyses public communication in Lebanon, by reviewing the relevant governance structures and procedures across the public administration, along with the prevailing use of core competencies for this function and their application to support transparency and stakeholder participation in public life. The recommendations in this report highlight important opportunities to shift towards a more strategic approach to public communication that can better serve policy goals and help respond to citizens’ needs and expectations.

  • 30 Mar 2021
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 253

Middle East and North Africa Investment Policy Perspectives highlights the considerable progress in investment policies made by the region’s governments over the past decade. Yet, the reform momentum needs to be sustained and deepened for the benefits of investment to be shared with society at large and for growth to be sustainable, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting global economic upheaval. The publication takes stock of investment policy trends and reforms in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, the Palestinian Authority, and Tunisia, and draws out common challenges, offering suggestions of reform priorities. It considers several dimensions of the policy framework that affect the investment climate and places strong emphasis on how foreign investment can help economies of the region improve their citizens’ lives. The publication serves as reference point, informing policymakers on specific areas as they continue work on leveraging investment to advance inclusive and sustainable growth.

フランス語, アラビア語

يسلّط تقرير " تطلعات سياسات الاستثمار في الشرق الأوسط وشمال أفريقيا" الضوء على التقدّم الملحوظ الذي حقّقته حكومات المنطقة في إصلاح سياسات الاستثمار خلال العقد الماضي. ولكن يحتاج زخم الإصلاحات هذه إلى الاستدامة والتعميق للتمكّن من مشاركة فوائد الاستثمارات مع المجتمع ككلّ، لا سيّما في سياق جائحة كوفيد-19 والاضطرابات الاقتصادية العالمية الناجمة عنها. من هنا، يقيّم هذا التقريرالتوجّهات السياساتية للاستثمار والإصلاحات في الجزائر، ومصر، والأردن، ولبنان، وليبيا، والمغرب، والسلطة الفلسطينيّة، وتونس، فيحدّد التحدّيات المشتركة ويقدّم اقتراحاتٍ حول أولويّات الإصلاح. كما يأخذ التقرير بالاعتبار مختلف الأبعاد السياساتية التي تؤثّر على مناخ الاستثمار، ويركّز بشكلٍ كبير على كيفيّة استخدام الاستثمار الأجنبي لمساعدة الحكومات على تحسين حياة مواطنيها. ويمكن أن يُعتبر التقرير مرجعًا لصانعي السياسات ليساعدهم في عملهم المستمرّ في جذب الاستثمارات التي تعزّز التنمية الشاملة والمستدامة.

英語, フランス語
  • 30 Mar 2021
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 292

La publication Perspectives des politiques d’investissement au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord met en exergue les progrès considérables accomplis en matière de politiques d’investissement par les gouvernements de la région tout au long de la dernière décennie. Toutefois, la dynamique de réforme devra se maintenir et se confirmer pour que les bénéfices liés à l'investissement soient partagés au sein de la société dans son ensemble et pour que la croissance soit durable, en particulier dans le contexte de la pandémie COVID-19 et des bouleversements économiques mondiaux qui en résultent. La publication fait le point sur les tendances et les réformes des politiques d'investissement en Algérie, Égypte, Jordanie, Liban, Libye, Maroc, dans l’Autorité palestinienne et en Tunisie. Elle identifie des défis communs, et propose des suggestions de priorités de réforme. Elle examine diverses dimensions du cadre politique affectant le climat de l’investissement et met fortement l’accent sur la manière dont les investissements étrangers peuvent aider les économies de la région à améliorer la vie de leurs citoyens. La publication sert de point de référence pour informer sur des points spécifiques les décideurs politiques qui s’attellent à mobiliser l’investissement pour une croissance inclusive et durable.

アラビア語, 英語
  • 15 Dec 2020
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 110

More and more countries have begun to introduce open government reforms as a catalyst for attaining broader policy goals such as improving democracy, fostering inclusive growth, and increasing trust. Following this trend, successive Lebanese governments have taken various steps to implement reforms based on the open government principles and aligned with the OECD Recommendation on Open Government. This Scan aims to support the government’s efforts to build more transparent, participatory, and accountable institutions that can restore citizens’ trust and promote inclusive growth. It is based on a survey, a peer review mission and in depth interviews at both the central level and in the municipalities of Jbeil (Byblos) and Schweir. The Scan analyzes priority areas of reform and provides actionable recommendations to further embed the principles and practices of open government within policy-making cycles and to evaluate their impacts.

This study explores how Lebanon can strengthen the governance of the digital transformation of its public sector to better serve the needs of its citizens and businesses. Three facets of Lebanon's governance are analysed: contextual factors, institutional models and policy levers. The study identifies challenges and opportunities in each area and provides policy recommendations to help Lebanon implement its digital government policy in a coherent and sustainable way.

This study investigates transition finance in Lebanon, an upper middle-income country in the MENA region transitioning from a significant adverse shock. Lebanon’s development path has been historically non-linear and, most recently, the Syrian conflict adversely affected the country’s development path. The Syrian conflict compounded pre-existing deficits and challenges in Lebanon, calling for increased international assistance.

DAC donors increased official development assistance (ODA) to Lebanon to preserve stability and promote refugee protection. Donors also created special financing instruments such as the Global Concessional Financing Facility (GCFF) to foster the provision of multilateral concessional financing to Lebanon. Official development finance in Lebanon is high in comparison to its peers, particularly on a per capita basis and for humanitarian assistance. The country also attracts high amounts of FDI and remittances. Overall, domestic credit dominates the financing landscape and public debt is high.

DAC members and other donors can strengthen the humanitarian-development-peace nexus, address long-standing country needs to promote self-sufficiency, and re-design partnerships driven by mutual accountability and appropriate incentive structures.

In May 2016, the World Humanitarian Summit represented a turning point for humanitarian policies. The Summit gave the impetus to seriously reflect on how to operate in environments where people’s needs don’t coincide anymore with existing mandates and sectors. The OECD believes that an effective humanitarian response is the one that addresses affected people’s needs in a timely and efficient manner. One way to measure effectiveness is to ask aid beneficiaries what they think about the aid they get. With this is mind, the OECD initiated a first round of surveys during the cycle 2016-2017 in six countries affected by different type of crisis : Lebanon, Afghanistan, Haiti, Iraq, Somalia and Uganda. Two years after the World humanitarian Summit, the OECD and Ground Truth Solutions took another round of surveys in the same countries, plus Bangladesh. The purpose of this second round of surveys is to assess whether the commitments made at the World Humanitarian Summit, including the Grand Bargain, are having a tangible impact on people’s lives in the most difficult contexts in the world. This paper provides some answers to this question.

Displacement is at a historic high, with over 65 million individuals currently displaced. The world is facing a refugee crisis that is unprecedented in scale. A large number of evaluations look at different aspects of programming in response to refugee crises in developing countries. This paper covers the key areas and priority topics related to forced displacement identified by the Development Assisstance Committee Temporary Working Group on Refugees and Migration. It draws from evaluation findings to highlight key lessons and recommendations for positive change going forward.

Key topics covered in the paper include: lessons on bridging the gap between humanitarian and development programming; efforts to strengthen international response to protracted crises; lessons on whole-of-government approaches in refugee contexts; learning from work in urban settings; improving access to employment and quality education; new financing mechanisms for refugee crises in middle income countries; and lessons on financing in response to the Syria crisis. The paper highlights the evaluation work of DAC members and aims to help strengthen the evidence base to improve response to situations of displacement in developing countries.

The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 100 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.

The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.  These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention. 

The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework.  Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.

For more information on the work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and for copies of the published review reports, please visit www.oecd.org/tax/transparency and www.eoi-tax.org.

This report analyses the implementation of the AEOI Standard in Lebanon with respect to the requirements of the AEOI Terms of Reference. It assesses both the legal frameworks put in place to implement the AEOI Standard and the effectiveness of the implementation of the AEOI Standard in practice.

Effective public communication is both a policy tool and an important part of open government. In Lebanon, considerable reform efforts have been under way in recent years to further the principles of transparency, integrity, accountability and stakeholder participation. This includes landmark legislation on anti-corruption and access to information enacted between 2017 and 2020.

This chapter provides an introductory analysis of the socio-political context in Lebanon as a backdrop to the report and its recommendations. It then introduces the OECD analytical framework on public communication and summarises the main findings and recommendations from all chapters.

This chapter will focus on the role of communication and the broader media ecosystem to support the implementation of the open government agenda in Lebanon. It will look at how public entities in charge of these reforms can use communication, and how they can support a more resilient media ecosystem that serves the principles of transparency, integrity, accountability and stakeholder participation.

This chapter focuses on the core competencies that are in place in Lebanon for implementing strategic communications, and how they can be upgraded and deployed to support the country’s policy objectives and regain citizen trust. These competencies, when applied well, can evolve communications from an information dissemination tool to a lever of stakeholder participation and improved policy and service design and implementation.

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