Since the 1990’s, the countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) have made great progress in pursuing economic development that is also environmentally sustainable. The countries, in collaboration with the GREEN Action Task Force hosted by the OECD, has developed a number of policies aiming to improve environmental quality and social well-being, while creating opportunities for strong economic growth and decent jobs in the region.

This report was prepared as the OECD contribution to the ninth “Environment for Europe” (EfE) Conference (5-7 October 2022). In this context, this report aims to: (i) take stock of progress on policy developments towards a green economy in the EECCA countries; (ii) showcase selected contributions from of the Green Action Task Force that integrate environmental and climate considerations into development pathways of the EECCA countries, and mobilise finance for action; and (iii) provide an outlook for the future, including priority actions that the Task Force in co-operation with the EECCA countries should take to enhance the momentum for green economy transition in the region.

Как и во многих странах, пандемия COVID-19 отрицательно сказалась на экономике стран Восточной Европы, Кавказа и Центральной Азии, ответные меры правительств которых заключались в смягчении воздействия пандемии на систему здравоохранения и оказании поддержки затронутым пандемией предприятиям и работникам. В рамках ответных мер, большинство стран ВЕКЦА также реализовали меры, которые могут способствовать достижению экологических целей. Тем не менее многое еще остается сделать, чтобы планы восстановления ускорили переход к «зеленой» экономике, тем самым повышая устойчивость к внешним шокам. В настоящем отчете проводится анализ мер, направленных на борьбу с COVID-19, предпринимаемых в 11 странах ВЕКЦА, на основании их потенциала к ускорению перехода к более «зеленой», стойкой к изменению климата и низкоуглеродной экономике. В рекомендациях предлагаются способы обеспечения содействия усилий правительств восстановлению экономики с учетом целей по борьбе с изменением климата, сохранению биологического разнообразия и расширению природоохранной деятельности.


As in many countries, the economies of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) have been negatively affected by the global COVID-19 pandemic. Their governments responded by addressing the health impacts and providing relief to affected businesses and workers. Many EECCA countries have also implemented measures that will help advance environmental objectives as part of their rescue and recovery plans. Nevertheless, much more needs to be done to ensure that recovery plans accelerate a green transition, thereby building resilience against external shocks. This policy paper analyses measures related to COVID-19 in 11 EECCA countries based on their potential to advance the transition to a greener, climate-resilient and low-carbon economy. Recommendations suggest ways to ensure that governments align efforts to support economic recovery with their objectives on climate change, biodiversity and wider environmental protection.


The global COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant negative impact on the economies of Central Asia. This updated policy note reports on the latest developments in the region and looks ahead to identify the key challenges likely to be faced by the region’s policy makers in the short-to medium-term. It examines five major economic challenges facing countries as they recover from the COVID-19 crisis –debt sustainability, migration, job retention, private sector fragility, and lack of connectivity –and proposes ways forward.

В настоящем отчете анализируются планируемые инфраструктурные проекты, основы принятия решений относительно развития инфраструктуры и документы по вопросам стратегического планирования, существующие в восьми странах Центральной Азии и Кавказа: Азербайджане, Грузии, Казахстане, Кыргызской Республике, Монголии, Таджикистане, Туркменистане и Узбекистане. В нем проводится сопоставление текущих инвестиционных потоков с национальными целями в области развития стран для указания несоответствий между ними и предоставляются рекомендации директивным органам для более полной интеграции проблем, связанных с изменением климата, и прочих экологических вопросов в процессы принятия решений относительно развития инфраструктуры. В отчете представлен комплексный обзор инфраструктурных инвестиций, в основном в сфере транспорта и энергетике, осуществляемых в регионе, а также указаны риски и возможности, связанные с нынешними тенденциями в области инвестиций.


This report analyses planned infrastructure projects, decision-making frameworks related to infrastructure development and strategic planning documents in eight countries in Central Asia and the Caucasus: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It compares current investment flows with countries' national development objectives to identify misalignments and provides policy-makers with recommendations to improve the integration of climate change and other environmental concerns into infrastucture development decision-making processes. The report presents a comprehensive overview of infrastructure investment, primarily in the transport and energy sectors, throughout the region and identifies the risks and opportunities emerging from current investment patterns.

  • 01 Dec 2015
  • International Energy Agency
  • ページ数: 476

Conveniently located near the world’s fastest growing energy markets, the resource-rich and transit countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia contribute significantly to world energy security. However, shared challenges across the region include aged infrastructure, high energy intensity, low energy efficiency, untapped alternative energy potential and poorly functioning regional energy markets.

This publication highlights the energy policies and sector developments of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan during 2013-14 and provides a summary of key recommendations for policy makers in the region.

Energy policy analysis is conducted in line with the INOGATE Programme’s four main pillars of energy development: energy market convergence, energy security, sustainable development and investment attraction. Started in 1996, the INOGATE Programme is one of the longest running energy technical assistance programmes funded by the European Union and works within the policy frameworks of the Baku Initiative and the Eastern Partnership. The INOGATE Programme co-operates with 11 Partner Countries to support reduction in their dependency on fossil fuels and imports, to improve the security of their energy supply and to mitigate overall climate change. It also supports the Eastern Partnership, a joint initiative between the European Union, EU Member States, and the Eastern European and Caucasus countries. Launched in 2009, the Eastern Partnership aims at advancing political association and economic integration.

This publication has been produced with European Union financial assistance provided through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument.

В настоящей главе описывается планирование устойчивой инфраструктуры в Туркменистане и представляются текущие тенденции в области инвестиций в крупномасштабные инфраструктурные проекты. Сравниваются инфраструктурные планы в энергетическом, транспортном, промышленном и водохозяйственном секторах с международными обязательствами по Парижскому соглашению и Целями в области устойчивого развития (ЦУР). В данной главе также рассматриваются документы стратегического планирования по долгосрочному экономическому развитию, отраслевому развитию и охране окружающей среды, включая документы, связанные со смягчением последствий изменения климата и адаптацией к нему. В заключение определены несогласованности между поставленными целями и наблюдаемыми инвестиционными потоками, и тем самым предложены рекомендации для улучшения стратегического планирования устойчивой инфраструктуры.


This chapter describes sustainable infrastructure planning in Turkmenistan and presents current trends in investment in large-scale infrastructure projects. It compares Turkmenistan’s infrastructure plans in the energy, transport, industry and water sectors against its international commitments under the Paris Agreement on climate change and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The chapter also explores Turkmenistan’s strategic documents for long-term economic development, sectoral development and the environment, including those related to climate change mitigation and adaptation. It identifies misalignments between stated goals and observed investment flows and provides recommendations to improve strategic planning for sustainable infrastructure.


Article 18 of the Constitution of Turkmenistan upholds the principle of equality between men and women and prohibits all forms of discrimination. The authorities consider the country’s legislative and regulatory frameworks to be free of discriminatory provisions, yet Turkmenistan is an authoritarian state that often stands accused of obstructing the rights and freedoms of a large proportion of its population, but various sources report that women’s rights are often severely breached. The Labour Code limits the professional opportunities of women and offers them no protection except in their maternal obligations. Social stereotypes prevail and have become more widespread since the country became independent in 2001. For the most part, the social position of women is defined according to their role as mothers.

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