Études économiques consacrées périodiquement par l'OCDE à l’économie de la Finlande. Chaque étude analyse les grands enjeux auxquels le pays fait face. Elle examine les perspectives à court terme et présente des recommandations détaillées à l’intention des décideurs politiques. Des chapitres thématiques analysent des enjeux spécifiques. Les tableaux et graphiques contiennent un large éventail de données statistiques.


OECD’s periodic surveys of the Finnish economy. Each edition surveys the major challenges faced by the country, evaluates the short-term outlook, and makes specific policy recommendations. Special chapters take a more detailed look at specific challenges. Extensive statistical information is included in charts and graphs.


This policy brief was prepared as part of the OECD's Resourcing Higher Education Project. This wider project aims to provide a shared knowledge base for OECD member and partner countries on policy for higher education resourcing, drawing on system-specific and comparative policy analysis. The policy brief for Finland was developed at the request of the Finnish authorities to support reflection on possible adjustments to the public funding model for Finnish higher education for the funding period (2025-28). The brief reviews the key challenges facing higher education in Finland and national policy priorities, compares Finland’s model of funding higher education institutions (HEIs) with models in OECD systems sharing similar characteristics to Finland’s and reviews policy options – both within and outside of the funding model – to support achievement of key policy objectives.

Governments are increasingly utilising research and innovation (R&I) policy to foster economic and societal change. Yet, the empirical correlation between these policies and socio-technical transformations remains under-explored. The report investigates this relationship by comparing the Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs) of Austria, Finland and Sweden, initiated under the NextGenerationEU framework post Covid-19. The report finds significant disparities in the content, process and transformative value of the RRPs among these countries. The differences in the content of the national RRPs, and the ability and willingness to seize the opportunity presented by the RRPs to drive transformation, are explained by existing national policy contexts and frameworks. Surprisingly, the role of R&I policy in the RRPs is less important than expected, despite its emphasised importance in literature and political rhetoric. The report further identifies implications for a transformative innovation policy as well as areas for further research.

This reliable source of yearly data covers a wide range of statistics on international trade of OECD countries and provides detailed data in value by commodity and by partner country. The first four volumes each contain the tables for six countries, published in the order in which they become available. The fifth contains seven countries and the sixth volume also includes the OECD country groupings OECD Total and EU28-Extra.

For each country, this publication shows detailed tables relating to the Harmonised System HS 2012 classification, Sections and Divisions (one- and two- digit). Each table presents imports and exports of a given commodity with more than seventy partner countries or country groupings for the most recent five-year period available.

This paper investigates the demand for language skills using data on online job vacancies in 27 European Union member countries and the United Kingdom in 2021. Evidence indicates that although Europe remains a linguistically diverse labour market, knowing English confers unique advantages in certain occupations. Across countries included in the analyses, a knowledge of English was explicitly required in 22% of all vacancies and English was the sixth most required skill overall. A knowledge of German, Spanish, French and Mandarin Chinese was explicitly demanded in between 1% and 2% of all vacancies. One in two positions advertised on line for managers or professionals required some knowledge of English, on average across European Union member countries and across OECD countries in the sample. This compares with only one in ten positions for skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and among elementary occupations.

  • 13 Jun 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 100

This reliable and up-to-date source of OECD quarterly balance of payments and international merchandise trade statistics provides a detailed insight into the most recent trends in trading patterns for OECD countries with the rest of the world. Balance of payments data are presented adjusted for seasonal variations. International trade data are broken down by country. The series shown cover data for the last ten quarters and two years available. This quarterly publication is divided into three parts: I. Balance of payments and international trade, II. International merchandise trade by country and III. International trade by commodity (annual data). The third part is a special topic which changes with each publication.

This dataset contains tax revenue collected by Finland. It provides detailed tax revenues by sector (Supranational, Federal or Central Government, State or Lander Government, Local Government, and Social Security Funds) and by specific tax, such as capital gains, profits and income, property, sales, etc.


  • 05 May 2023
  • International Energy Agency
  • ページ数: 187

Finland has set one of the most ambitious climate targets in the world, a legal obligation to reach carbon neutrality by 2035. It has made notable progress towards this target, deploying the first new nuclear reactor in Europe in over 15 years and strongly expanding wind generation. Thanks to the progress Finland has made on its clean energy transition, the country has the second lowest share of fossil fuels in its energy supply among IEA members. It is also reducing its reliance on Russian energy imports and ensuring energy security by increasing imports from other countries, raising domestic renewable energy production and improving energy efficiency.

Despite these notable successes in clean energy and energy security, significant challenges remain. Imported fossil fuels still account for over a third of the energy supply while some areas of the Finnish economy, such as transport and key industrial activities, remain dependant on fossil fuels. Also, land use change and forestry in Finland, which have historically offset a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, became a net source of emissions for the first time in 2021.

In this report, the IEA provides a range of energy policy recommendations to help Finland smoothly manage the transition to a secure, efficient and flexible carbon neutral energy system.

This dataset includes pension funds statistics with OECD classifications by type of pension plans and by type of pension funds. All types of plans are included (occupational and personal, mandatory and voluntary). The OECD classification considers both funded and book reserved pension plans that are workplace-based (occupational pension plans) or accessed directly in retail markets (personal pension plans). Both mandatory and voluntary arrangements are included. The data includes plans where benefits are paid by a private sector entity (classified as private pension plans by the OECD) as well as those paid by a funded public sector entity. Data are presented in various measures depending on the variable: millions of national currency, millions of USD, thousands or unit.
This dataset comprises statistics pertaining to pensions indicators.It includes indicators such as occupational pension funds’asset as a % of GDP, personal pension funds’ asset as a % of GDP, DC pension plans’assets as a % of total assets. Pension fund and plan types are classified according to the OECD classification. Three dimensions cover this classification: pension plan type, definition type and contract type.

The Pensions at a Glance database includes reliable and internationally comparable statistics on public and mandatory and voluntary pensions. It covers 34 OECD countries and aims to cover all G20 countries. Pensions at a Glance reviews and analyses the pension measures enacted or legislated in OECD countries. It provides an in-depth review of the first layer of protection of the elderly, first-tier pensions across countries and provideds a comprehensive selection of pension policy indicators for all OECD and G20 countries.

This dataset contains data on metropolitan regions with demographic, labour, innovation and economic statistics by population, regional surface, population density, labour force, employment, unemployment, GDP, GDP per capita, PCT patent applications, and elderly dependency ratio.

Drawing on the OECD Well-being Framework, this paper outlines the state of well-being outcomes in Finland and identifies strengths, weaknesses and trends compared to other OECD countries. Overall, Finland is an established international leader in well-being and sustainability. Six key insights highlight the several challenges for well-being that remain in Finland and should be addressed in a comprehensive, balanced and inclusive way. These insights have been identified by considering economic, social, and environmental outcomes – and inequalities in these – simultaneously, to highlight the type of policy-relevant findings that arise when applying a well-being approach to measuring progress.

This dataset comprises statistics on different transactions and balances to get from the GDP to the net lending/borrowing. It includes national disposable income (gross and net), consumption of fixed capital as well as net savings. It also includes transaction components such as net current transfers and net capital transfers. Data are expressed in millions of national currency as well as US dollars and available in both current and constant prices. Data are provided from 1950 onwards.

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the standard measure of the value of final goods and services produced by a country during a period minus the value of imports. This subset of Aggregate National Accounts comprises comprehensive statistics on gross domestic product (GDP) by presenting the three different approaches of its measure of GDP: output based GDP, expenditure based GDP and income based GDP. These three different measures of gross domestic product (GDP) are further detailed by transactions whereby: the output approach includes gross value added at basic prices, taxes less subsidies, statistical discrepancy; the expenditure approach includes domestic demand, gross capital formation, external balance of goods and services; and the income approach includes variables such as compensation of employees, gross operating surplus, taxes and production and imports. Gross domestic product (GDP) data are measured in national currency and are available in current prices, constant prices and per capita starting from 1950 onwards.


  • 29 Mar 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 82

La guerre d'agression menée par la Russie contre l'Ukraine assombrit les perspectives économiques à court terme de la Finlande et accentue l’urgence de la transition vers une économie moins dépendante des énergies fossiles. L'économie finlandaise devrait se contracter au cours des prochains trimestres, pénalisée par une inflation élevée, un durcissement des conditions monétaires et la réduction des approvisionnements en gaz russe dans les économies qui sont des partenaires commerciaux de la Finlande, mais se redresser en 2024 une fois ces difficultés dissipées. La guerre a également entraîné une dégradation des finances publiques, retardant les mesures d'assainissement nécessaires pour les remettre sur une trajectoire viable et reconstituer des amortisseurs face aux chocs futurs. Si la Finlande est en bonne voie pour atteindre ses objectifs de réduction concernant les émissions brutes de gaz à effet de serre, il est possible d'abaisser les coûts de réduction de ces émissions, notamment en remplaçant les mesures inefficaces par une taxe carbone globale dans le secteur visé par le règlement de l’UE sur la répartition de l’effort. De nouvelles mesures seront également nécessaires pour atteindre les objectifs en matière de foresterie et autres utilisations des sols, qui sont très délicats. Redynamiser les écosystèmes de l’innovation contribuerait à renforcer les gains de productivité, qui sont faibles en Finlande. Pour cela, il faudra non seulement accroître les dépenses de R&D, mais aussi engager une politique en faveur de projets d'innovation finalisés et mettre en place un écosystème d'innovation plus diversifié, en renforçant les synergies entre promotion des exportations et innovation et, surtout, en développant l’offre de travailleurs qualifiés.



This report examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Nordic labour markets and the associated policy responses undertaken in the areas of unemployment benefits, job retention schemes, active labour market policies and skill development policies. The report discusses the details of these policy measures across Nordic countries and draws out the main lessons learned from their response to the crisis. Finally, the report provides a set of key recommendations in each policy area to enable Nordic countries to build more inclusive and resilient labour markets in the post-pandemic period.

Schools are perfect hubs for social and emotional learning, but are they ready for this task? To address this question, this Spotlight reports previously unpublished findings from the OECD’s Survey on Social and Emotional Skills (SSES) and discusses their implications for education policy and practice. Both an active promotion in schools and extensive learning opportunities for teachers on relevant topics provide a fertile ground for an effective social and emotional education. They boost teachers’ self-efficacy and use of active learning pedagogies, as well as quality relationships at school. The Spotlight also points to important differences for teachers of 10- vs. 15-year-old students that can explain higher skills at a younger age. Younger students benefit more often from key elements of an effective social and emotional education in school, i.e. the evaluation of their social and emotional skills and teachers teaming up with parents to reinforce skill promotion. Teachers of 10-year-olds are also more intensively trained and requested to promote social and emotional learning in their work.

This report analyses the trends in Finnish productivity growth over the 2000s and 2010s. It describes its key features, makes comparisons to a benchmark of 16 OECD countries, and studies the causes of its sudden and prolonged slowdown which began at the end of the 2000s. The analysis focuses on the role of two contemporaneous demand shocks that hit the Finnish economy: the Nokia crisis and the Great Trade Collapse of 2009.

Matching detailed firm-based information on structural characteristics of productivity growth with global input-output tables and National Accounts data, the report highlights how the prolonged drop in demand from the domestic computer and electronics sector may have induced a persistent drag on Finnish productivity growth.

The report concludes with policy implications to strengthen Finnish resilience to idiosyncratic shocks to key sectors or large firms, while supporting long-term productivity growth and competitiveness.

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