Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine has had profound effects on the maritime sector. It directly disrupted maritime activities in the Black and Azov seas, causing the suspension of Ukrainian port operations and agricultural exports. Although an export corridor temporarily resumed activities, the termination of the agreement in July 2023 continues to affect Ukrainian shipping. International sanctions against Russia and Belarus have notably targeted shipowners and shipbuilders, restricting Russian ships' access to OECD ports. These sanctions have also halted orders for Russian ship owners in OECD countries, reducing new orders and vessel completions in Russian shipyards. While global seaborne trade and ship demand remain relatively unaffected, the war has prompted longer-term impacts such as altered trading routes, changes in energy demand and costs, potential implications for maritime decarbonisation, and an increase in "dark fleet" vessels.

Since the 1990’s, the countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) have made great progress in pursuing economic development that is also environmentally sustainable. The countries, in collaboration with the GREEN Action Task Force hosted by the OECD, has developed a number of policies aiming to improve environmental quality and social well-being, while creating opportunities for strong economic growth and decent jobs in the region.

This report was prepared as the OECD contribution to the ninth “Environment for Europe” (EfE) Conference (5-7 October 2022). In this context, this report aims to: (i) take stock of progress on policy developments towards a green economy in the EECCA countries; (ii) showcase selected contributions from of the Green Action Task Force that integrate environmental and climate considerations into development pathways of the EECCA countries, and mobilise finance for action; and (iii) provide an outlook for the future, including priority actions that the Task Force in co-operation with the EECCA countries should take to enhance the momentum for green economy transition in the region.

На основе стандартной методологии ОЭСР в исследовании приведены количественные оценки мер государственной поддержки как на потребление, так и на производство угля, нефти, нефтепродуктов, природного газа, а также электрической и тепловой энергии, производимой на основе этих видов ископаемого топлива. В докладе представлены основные выводы анализа механизмов субсидирования ископаемых видов топлива в шести странах Восточного партнерства (ВП) Европейского союза: Армении, Азербайджане, Беларуси, Грузии, Республике Молдова и Украине. В исследовании обновлены оценки публикации 2018 года «Энергетические субсидии в странах Восточного партнерства ЕС» с представлением данных и оценок за 2016-2019 годы. Анализ сфокусирован на оценке двух основных типов субсидий на ископаемые виды топлива: прямых трансфертах средств производителям и потребителям и налоговых расходах. В докладе кратко рассмотрены меры политики в области налогообложения и ценообразования в энергосекторе, которые непосредственно или косвенно влияют на динамику субсидий в этом регионе. В приложениях к докладу приведены детальные оценки всех мер поддержки для каждой из шести стран.


Based on the OECD standard methodology, the study presents quantitative estimates of government support to consumers and producers of coal, oil and related petroleum products and natural gas, and electricity and heat generated from these fossil fuels. This report summarises the main findings of the analysis of fossil-fuel subsidy schemes in the six European Union's Eastern Partner (EaP) countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine. The study updates the 2018 Inventory of Energy Subsidies in the EU’s Eastern Partnership Countries by providing data and estimates for 2016‑19. The analysis focuses on measuring two major types of fossil-fuel subsidies: direct transfers of funds to producers and consumers; and tax expenditure. This report also briefly discusses the taxation and energy pricing policies that have had direct or indirect impact on the evolution of fossil-fuel subsidies in the region. Detailed estimates of all individual support measures for each of the six countries are provided in Annexes to the report.

  • 30 Jul 2021
  • OECD, United Nations Children's Fund
  • ページ数: 93

Countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have clear aspirations to strengthen civic participation and increase prosperity for all. A highly skilled and knowledgeable population is critical to achieving these goals, which makes creating and maintaining high quality and equitable education systems a vital part of regional development efforts. Results from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) show that learning outcomes in the region have generally improved, but that the improvement has not been equitable. While countries in the region are producing some of the top performing students in the world, many other students are being left behind.

This report, jointly developed by OECD and UNICEF, analyses PISA data in detail to identify the strengths, challenges and unique features of education systems in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Drawing upon a rich knowledge base of education policy and practice in the region, it makes recommendations about how systems in the region can provide an excellent education for all students. This report will be of interest to regional policy-makers as well as individuals who wish to learn more about education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

This report analyses planned infrastructure projects, decision-making frameworks related to infrastructure development and strategic planning documents in the six countries of the EU Eastern Partnership: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. It compares current investment flows with countries' national development objectives to identify misalignments and provides policy-makers with recommendations to improve the integration of climate change and other environmental concerns into infrastructure development decision-making processes. The report presents a comprehensive overview of infrastructure investment, primarily in the transport and energy sectors, throughout the region and identifies the risks and opportunities emerging from current investment patterns.

Как и во многих странах, пандемия COVID-19 отрицательно сказалась на экономике стран Восточной Европы, Кавказа и Центральной Азии, ответные меры правительств которых заключались в смягчении воздействия пандемии на систему здравоохранения и оказании поддержки затронутым пандемией предприятиям и работникам. В рамках ответных мер, большинство стран ВЕКЦА также реализовали меры, которые могут способствовать достижению экологических целей. Тем не менее многое еще остается сделать, чтобы планы восстановления ускорили переход к «зеленой» экономике, тем самым повышая устойчивость к внешним шокам. В настоящем отчете проводится анализ мер, направленных на борьбу с COVID-19, предпринимаемых в 11 странах ВЕКЦА, на основании их потенциала к ускорению перехода к более «зеленой», стойкой к изменению климата и низкоуглеродной экономике. В рекомендациях предлагаются способы обеспечения содействия усилий правительств восстановлению экономики с учетом целей по борьбе с изменением климата, сохранению биологического разнообразия и расширению природоохранной деятельности.


As in many countries, the economies of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) have been negatively affected by the global COVID-19 pandemic. Their governments responded by addressing the health impacts and providing relief to affected businesses and workers. Many EECCA countries have also implemented measures that will help advance environmental objectives as part of their rescue and recovery plans. Nevertheless, much more needs to be done to ensure that recovery plans accelerate a green transition, thereby building resilience against external shocks. This policy paper analyses measures related to COVID-19 in 11 EECCA countries based on their potential to advance the transition to a greener, climate-resilient and low-carbon economy. Recommendations suggest ways to ensure that governments align efforts to support economic recovery with their objectives on climate change, biodiversity and wider environmental protection.


Настоящий отчет представляет результаты сотрудничества в области повышения водной безопасности Республики Беларусь с ОЭСР и ее партнерами по реализации финансируемого Европейским союзом проекта Водная инициатива Европейского союза плюс для стран Восточного партнерства. Он содержит обзор наличия и распределения водных ресурсов в стране, а также связанных с ними особых вызовов, стоящих перед различными областями Беларуси, и рассматривает запланированные меры политики для достижения всеобъемлющих целей водной политики Беларуси по обеспечению водной безопасности в рамках будущей национальной "Водной Стратегии Республики Беларусь на период до 2030 года, в условиях изменения климата". Настоящий отчет также включает в себя оценку возможностей повышения водной безопасности Беларуси посредством оказания поддержки программе водохозяйственных реформ, осуществляемой в стране.

  • 18 Dec 2020
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 75

This report presents the results of collaboration on improving water security in Belarus, between the beneficiary country, the OECD and its partners implementing the EU-funded European Union Water Initiative Plus project. It provides an overview of the composition and distribution of the country’s water resources, including the particular challenges facing different regions (oblasts), and lays out the policy responses that Belarus has taken and planned to progress its overarching policy objective of ensuring water security within the framework of the future national Water Strategy in the Context of Climate Change for the Period until 2030. The report also provides an assessment of potential opportunities to boost water security in Belarus by supporting the country’s ongoing water policy reform agenda.


The COVID-19 crisis has had a profound impact on SME access to finance. In particular, the sudden drop in revenues created acute liquidity shortages, threatening the survival of many viable businesses. The report documents an increase in demand for bank lending in the first half of 2020, and a steady supply of credit thanks to government interventions. On the other hand, other sources of finance declined, in particular early-stage equity.

This paper, a special edition of Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs, focuses on the impacts of COVID-19 on SME access to finance, along with government policy responses. It reveals that the pre-crisis financing environment was broadly favourable for SMEs and entrepreneurs, who benefited from low interest rates, loose credit standards and an increasingly diverse offer of financing instruments.

It documents the unprecedented scope and scale of the policy responses undertaken by governments world-wide, and details their key characteristics, and outlines the principal issues and policy challenges for the next phases of the pandemic, such as the over-indebtedness of SMEs and the need to continue to foster a diverse range of financing instruments for SMEs.


Ce rapport est une édition spéciale du Tableau de bord de l’OCDE sur le financement des PME et des entrepreneurs, publication phare de l’OCDE. Il examine en détail les conséquences du COVID-19 sur l’accès des PME au financement, ainsi que les mesures prises en conséquence par les pouvoirs publics. Il apparaît qu’avant la crise, les conditions de financement étaient globalement favorables pour les PME et les entrepreneurs, qui bénéficiaient de faibles taux d’intérêt, de critères accommodants d’octroi des crédits et d’une offre de plus en plus diversifiée d’instruments de financement. Mais la crise du COVID‑19 a profondément bouleversé l’accès des PME au financement. Plus particulièrement, l’effondrement brutal du chiffre d’affaires des entreprises a provoqué de graves pénuries de liquidités qui ont mis en danger la survie de bon nombre d’entreprises viables. Ce rapport fait état d’une augmentation de la demande de prêts bancaires au cours du premier semestre de 2020, et d’une stabilité de l’offre de crédit grâce à l’action des pouvoirs publics. Parallèlement, on a observé un recul d’autres sources de financement, en particulier l’apport de fonds propres au stade du démarrage. Le rapport réunit des données sur le périmètre et l’ampleur des mesures prises par les gouvernements dans le monde, et en précise les principales caractéristiques. Il décrit les principaux enjeux stratégiques du financement des PME qui se poseront au cours des prochaines phases de la pandémie ; il s’agira en effet d’éviter le surendettement des PME, de promouvoir une gamme diversifiée d’instruments de financement, de stimuler la création d’entreprises et de renforcer la résilience des PME par des mesures structurelles.


The impact of the Covid-19 crisis on public health in the six EU Eastern Partner (EaP) countries remains limited with 187 reported fatalities in the region as of 14 April. Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia (because of their proximity to Iran) saw the region’s first cases of Covid-19 in late February. Swift containment measures and limited intra-regional mobility have so far helped limit the spread of the virus, and the number of recorded cases remains relatively low in the South Caucasus.

«Индекс экономической политики в сфере МСП: страны Восточного партнерства в 2020 г. Оценка реализации Европейского акта о малом бизнесе» является уникальным инструментом сопоставительного анализа, который позволяет контролировать прогресс разработки и осуществления политики в области МСП в сравнении с передовыми практиками ЕС и международного сообщества. Он основывается на 10 принципах Европейского акта о малом бизнесе (АМБ), который предлагает широкий спектр мер, направленных на оказание поддержки предприятиям. Эти принципы служат руководящей основой для разработки и осуществления политики в сфере МСП. Настоящее исследование является третьим изданием из данной серии. Результаты первых двух исследований были опубликованы в 2012 и 2016 годах. В исследовании 2020 года представлен всесторонний обзор хода реализации десяти рекомендаций закона, а также анализируются успехи, достигнутые странами региона с 2016 года. Кроме того, в исследовании рассматриваются существующие проблемы, затрагивающие МСП в странах ВП, и предлагаются рекомендации по их решению на основе примеров передовой практики ЕС и других стран мира. В издание 2020 года также включена оценка трех новых направлений (защита конкуренции, принудительное исполнение договоров и коммерческая добросовестность), выходящих за рамки политики развития МСП и охватывающих ключевые приоритеты структурных реформ, которые имеют решающее значение для создания равных условий для предприятий всех размеров и форм собственности.

  • 17 Mar 2020
  • OECD, European Union, European Training Foundation, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • ページ数: 526

The SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2020 – Assessing the Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe is a unique benchmarking tool to assess and monitor progress in the design and implementation of SME policies against EU and international best practice. It is structured around the ten principles of the Small Business Act for Europe (SBA), which provide a wide range of pro-enterprise measures to guide the design and implementation of SME policies. This report marks the third edition in this series, following assessments in 2012 and 2016. It provides a comprehensive overview of the state of play in the implementation of the ten SBA principles, and monitors progress made since 2016. It also identifies remaining challenges affecting SMEs in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries and provides recommendations to address them based on EU and international good practice examples. The 2020 edition also features a novelty: An assessment of three new dimensions going beyond core SME policy (competition, contract enforcement and business integrity) looking at key structural reform priorities that are critical to establishing a level playing field for enterprises of all sizes and ownership types.

  • 30 Sept 2016
  • International Energy Agency
  • ページ数: 78

Belarus, like many countries around the world, faces the challenge of diversifying its energy mix and enhancing its energy security while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. One of its priorities is to lower its heavy reliance on natural gas imports from Russia by producing more low-emission energy domestically, including renewable and nuclear power. And while Belarus has managed to decouple energy demand from economic growth, a big potential remains for improved energy efficiency due to the country’s inefficient Soviet-era infrastructure and insufficient investments in energy.

Thanks to a favourable regulatory environment and a promising potential for renewables, the IEA selected Belarus for a pilot study for the Clean Energy Technology Assessment Methodology (CETAM). This methodology, developed with the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), aims to provide clear, transparent information about clean energy technology markets in emerging economies. The programme’s goal is to identify the most promising technologies for policy support and investment and to establish metrics for tracking their deployment over time.

This report assesses the range of technological options in Belarus on both the demand and supply side to determine which show the most potential for further development, in line with the country’s policy goals and resource endowment. Appropriate policies and measures that support a well-functioning market for the development of local renewable sources would help the government reach its energy security targets and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Closer monitoring of priority energy efficiency technologies would allow Belarus to implement planned measures more effectively and optimise its energy savings potential.

  • 01 Dec 2015
  • International Energy Agency
  • ページ数: 476

Conveniently located near the world’s fastest growing energy markets, the resource-rich and transit countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia contribute significantly to world energy security. However, shared challenges across the region include aged infrastructure, high energy intensity, low energy efficiency, untapped alternative energy potential and poorly functioning regional energy markets.

This publication highlights the energy policies and sector developments of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan during 2013-14 and provides a summary of key recommendations for policy makers in the region.

Energy policy analysis is conducted in line with the INOGATE Programme’s four main pillars of energy development: energy market convergence, energy security, sustainable development and investment attraction. Started in 1996, the INOGATE Programme is one of the longest running energy technical assistance programmes funded by the European Union and works within the policy frameworks of the Baku Initiative and the Eastern Partnership. The INOGATE Programme co-operates with 11 Partner Countries to support reduction in their dependency on fossil fuels and imports, to improve the security of their energy supply and to mitigate overall climate change. It also supports the Eastern Partnership, a joint initiative between the European Union, EU Member States, and the Eastern European and Caucasus countries. Launched in 2009, the Eastern Partnership aims at advancing political association and economic integration.

This publication has been produced with European Union financial assistance provided through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument.

  • 24 Nov 2015
  • OECD, European Training Foundation, European Union, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • ページ数: 360

The SME Policy Index is a benchmarking tool designed for emerging economies to assess SME policy frameworks and monitor progress in policy implementation over time. The Index has been developed by the OECD in partnership with the European Commission, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and the European Training Foundation (ETF) in 2006.

For the Eastern Partner Countries, the assessment framework is structured around the ten principles of the Small Business Act for Europe (SBA), providing a wide-range of pro-enterprise measures to guide the design and implementation of SME policies based on good practices promoted by the EU and the OECD. It is applied to the Eastern Partner Countries for the second time since 2012.

The Index identifies strengths and weaknesses in policy design and implementation, allows for comparison across countries and measures convergence towards good practices and relevant policy standards. It aims to support governments in setting targets for SME policy development and to identify strategic priorities to further improve the business environment. It also helps to engage governments in policy dialogue and exchange good practices within the region and with OECD and EU members.

  • 12 Dec 1997
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 148

Cette étude s'inscrit dans la série d'examens des performances environnementales des Économies en transition. cette série a été entreprise dans le cadre du programme de travail du Centre pour la Coopération avec les Économies en Transition de l'OCDE. Les efforts menés pour atteindre les objectifs nationaux et satisfaire aux engagements internationaux y sont évalués en détail. Les progrès accomplis ou à faire dans la réduction de la charge polluante, la gestion des ressources naturelles, l'intégration des politiques économique et environnementale et le renforcement de la coopération internationale sont aussi au centre de ces examens. Les analyses s'appuient sur un large ensemble de données économiques et environnementales.
Les rapports sur les performances environnementales des pays suivants sont déjà publiés : Autriche, Allemagne, Bulgarie, Canada, Corée, Espagne, États-Unis, Finlande, France, Islande, Italie, Japon, Nouvelle-Zélande, Norvège, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Royaume-Uni et Suède.

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