New Zealand


OECD’s periodic surveys of the New Zealand economy. Each edition surveys the major challenges faced by the country, evaluates the short-term outlook, and makes specific policy recommendations. Special chapters take a more detailed look at specific challenges. Extensive statistical information is included in charts and graphs.


Études économiques consacrées périodiquement par l'OCDE à l’économie de la Nouvelle-Zélande. Chaque étude analyse les grands enjeux auxquels le pays fait face. Elle examine les perspectives à court terme et présente des recommandations détaillées à l’intention des décideurs politiques. Des chapitres thématiques analysent des enjeux spécifiques. Les tableaux et graphiques contiennent un large éventail de données statistiques.

  • 13 Jun 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 100

This reliable and up-to-date source of OECD quarterly balance of payments and international merchandise trade statistics provides a detailed insight into the most recent trends in trading patterns for OECD countries with the rest of the world. Balance of payments data are presented adjusted for seasonal variations. International trade data are broken down by country. The series shown cover data for the last ten quarters and two years available. This quarterly publication is divided into three parts: I. Balance of payments and international trade, II. International merchandise trade by country and III. International trade by commodity (annual data). The third part is a special topic which changes with each publication.

This reliable source of yearly data covers a wide range of statistics on international trade of OECD countries and provides detailed data in value by commodity and by partner country. The first four volumes each contain the tables for six countries, published in the order in which they become available. The fifth contains seven countries and the sixth volume also includes the OECD country groupings OECD Total and EU28-Extra.

For each country, this publication shows detailed tables relating to the Harmonised System HS 2012 classification, Sections and Divisions (one- and two- digit). Each table presents imports and exports of a given commodity with more than seventy partner countries or country groupings for the most recent five-year period available.

  • 11 May 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 89

Le Comité d’aide au développement (CAD) de l’OCDE mène tous les cinq à six ans un examen par les pairs qui passe en revue les efforts de coopération pour le développement de chacun de ses membres. Ces examens visent à améliorer la qualité et l’efficacité de leur coopération pour le développement, en mettant en évidence les bonnes pratiques et en recommandant des améliorations. La Nouvelle-Zélande est un partenaire apprécié dans le Pacifique, principale région bénéficiaire de son aide publique au développement (APD). Sous la responsabilité du ministère des Affaires étrangères et du Commerce, l’attachement à l’appropriation nationale et régionale, les efforts déployés pour intégrer le savoir et les valeurs autochtones, ainsi que les engagements pris pour accroître les financements climatiques témoignent de l’engagement de la Nouvelle-Zélande et de la pertinence de son action. Cet examen par les pairs recommande à la Nouvelle-Zélande de tirer le meilleur parti de l’intégration plus étroite de la politique étrangère et de la politique de développement dans le Pacifique, de renforcer les ressources humaines, de créer les conditions nécessaires à une prise de décision efficace et efficiente, d’améliorer la transparence, de favoriser une meilleure compréhension de la problématique du développement au sein de la population, de promouvoir les liens entre les investissements liés au climat et d’autres priorités, et d’établir un plan pour accroître l’APD, de manière à concrétiser ses objectifs stratégiques.

  • 11 May 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 72

The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts peer reviews of individual members once every five to six years. Reviews seek to improve the quality and effectiveness of members’ development co-operation, highlighting good practices and recommending improvements. New Zealand is a valued partner in the Pacific where most of its official development assistance (ODA) is delivered. Led by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, its commitment to national and regional ownership, efforts to draw on indigenous knowledge and values, and scaled-up climate finance commitments attest to New Zealand’s engagement and relevance. This peer review provides recommendations for New Zealand to make the most of the closer integration of foreign and development policy in the Pacific, reinforce human resources, enable efficient and effective decision making, strengthen transparency, build public understanding of development, foster the linkages between climate-related investments and other priorities, and establish a plan for increasing ODA to deliver on New Zealand’s strategic goals.

This dataset comprises statistics pertaining to pensions indicators.It includes indicators such as occupational pension funds’asset as a % of GDP, personal pension funds’ asset as a % of GDP, DC pension plans’assets as a % of total assets. Pension fund and plan types are classified according to the OECD classification. Three dimensions cover this classification: pension plan type, definition type and contract type.
  • 27 Apr 2023
  • International Energy Agency
  • ページ数: 160

New Zealand has set ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including achieving net zero emissions by 2050. The country enjoys many natural advantages for its energy transition, including an enviable renewable resource base.

New Zealand already has a low‑emissions electricity system, with significant production from both hydropower and geothermal, and therefore has an attractive opportunity to leverage this clean electricity to decarbonise end-user sectors. This will require not only sizeable technological investments to efficiently electrify transport and industry, but will also necessitate a sizeable buildout of additional renewables generation capacity, along with supplemental grid and storage investments. Notably, the transport sector accounts for the highest share of emissions and is almost entirely dependent on oil. Industry is also a major contributor to New Zealand’s emissions and is heavily reliant on fossil fuels.

In this report, the IEA provides energy policy recommendations to help New Zealand effectively manage the transformation of its energy sector in line with its climate targets.

The Pensions at a Glance database includes reliable and internationally comparable statistics on public and mandatory and voluntary pensions. It covers 34 OECD countries and aims to cover all G20 countries. Pensions at a Glance reviews and analyses the pension measures enacted or legislated in OECD countries. It provides an in-depth review of the first layer of protection of the elderly, first-tier pensions across countries and provideds a comprehensive selection of pension policy indicators for all OECD and G20 countries.

This dataset contains data on metropolitan regions with demographic, labour, innovation and economic statistics by population, regional surface, population density, labour force, employment, unemployment, GDP, GDP per capita, PCT patent applications, and elderly dependency ratio.

This dataset comprises statistics on different transactions and balances to get from the GDP to the net lending/borrowing. It includes national disposable income (gross and net), consumption of fixed capital as well as net savings. It also includes transaction components such as net current transfers and net capital transfers. Data are expressed in millions of national currency as well as US dollars and available in both current and constant prices. Data are provided from 1950 onwards.

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the standard measure of the value of final goods and services produced by a country during a period minus the value of imports. This subset of Aggregate National Accounts comprises comprehensive statistics on gross domestic product (GDP) by presenting the three different approaches of its measure of GDP: output based GDP, expenditure based GDP and income based GDP. These three different measures of gross domestic product (GDP) are further detailed by transactions whereby: the output approach includes gross value added at basic prices, taxes less subsidies, statistical discrepancy; the expenditure approach includes domestic demand, gross capital formation, external balance of goods and services; and the income approach includes variables such as compensation of employees, gross operating surplus, taxes and production and imports. Gross domestic product (GDP) data are measured in national currency and are available in current prices, constant prices and per capita starting from 1950 onwards.


The paper discusses the implications of recent advances in artificial intelligence for knowledge workers, focusing on possible complementarities and substitution between machine translation tools and language professionals. The emergence of machine translation tools could enhance social welfare through enhanced opportunities for inter-language communication but also create new threats because of persisting low levels of accuracy and quality in the translation output. The paper uses data on online job vacancies to map the evolution of the demand for language professionals between 2015 and 2019 in 10 countries and illustrates the set of skills that are considered important by employers seeking to hire language professionals through job vacancies posted on line.

As societies become increasingly digital, cyber security has become a priority for individuals, companies and nations. The number of cyber attacks is exceeding defence capabilities, and one reason for this is the lack of an adequately skilled cyber security workforce. This report analyses the demand for cyber security professionals in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States using information contained in online job postings. The analysis looks at recent trends in the demand for workers in different types of cyber security roles, the geographical distribution of cyber security job postings, and the changing skill requirements for professionals in this field. The report also looks at the supply side, zooming in on the landscape of cyber security education and training programmes in England (United Kingdom). It describes the different types of programmes provided in further and higher education, the profile of learners in these programmes and their outcomes. Finally, the report also looks at policies and initiatives adopted in England to make cyber security education and training programmes more accessible and relevant. This report is part of a larger initiative examining the evolution of policies and experiences in the cyber security profession around the world.

  • 28 Feb 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 175

In New Zealand, the government’s response to the COVID-19 crisis is considered effective as it protected people’s lives with limited disruption to society and the economy. A key factor in achieving these results was a focus on collective goals, grounded in the high-trust relationship that exists between New Zealanders and their public institutions. Still, high levels of trust should not be taken for granted. As new challenges emerge and old ones reappear, people in New Zealand expect the government to build on the lessons from the pandemic to improve service delivery and the resilience of public institutions. This report provides recommendations for further strengthening trust, including making public services more responsive, integrating long-term thinking into policy making, countering the spread of mis- and disinformation and reinforcing New Zealand’s integrity system.

This study responds to six key questions about the impact that the demand for Artificial Intelligence (AI) skills is having on labour markets. What are the occupations where AI skills are most relevant? How do different AI-relevant skills combine in job requirements? How quickly is the demand for AI-related skills diffusing across labour markets and what is the relationship between AI skill demands and the demand for cognitive skills across jobs? Finally, are AI skills leading to a wage premium and how different are the wage returns associated with AI and routine skills? To shed light on these aspects, this study leverages Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithms to analyse the information contained in millions of job postings collected from the internet.

Being able to swim empowers individuals to make choices, have agency, and be free to choose core aspects of their life, such as working safely on or near water. It is also associated with lifelong health benefits and reduces the risk of drowning. Using data from the Lloyd’s Register Foundation World Risk Poll 2019, this paper provides the first global estimates of adults’ ability to swim without assistance. Individuals in high-income countries are considerably more likely to report being able to swim without assistance than individuals in low-income countries. Disparities also exist within countries. In particular, women are less likely to be able to swim without assistance than men in virtually all countries, birth cohorts, and levels of education. Investing in reducing inequalities in life skills, such as swimming, can foster economic development and empowerment, especially in light of threats, such as climate change.

  • 10 Nov 2022
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 169

L'économie néo-zélandaise s'est rapidement remise du choc du COVID-19 grâce à un confinement efficace du virus, à des mesures de protection des emplois et des revenus et à des politiques macroéconomiques très expansionnistes, mais elle est maintenant en surchauffe et les prix de l'immobilier ont grimpé en flèche. La Banque de Réserve a commencé à durcir ses politiques monétaire et macroprudentielle en vue d'atteindre ses objectifs de stabilité des prix et de stabilité financière. Conjuguées à des mesures visant à accroître l'offre de logements, ces mesures devraient contribuer à modérer l'inflation des prix des logements. Alors que le déficit budgétaire a commencé à baisser par rapport aux sommets atteints lors de la première vague du choc COVID-19, des mesures d'assainissement supplémentaires seront nécessaires pour remettre les finances publiques sur une trajectoire durable, notamment une augmentation de l'âge d'admissibilité à la retraite. La Nouvelle-Zélande dispose d'une marge de manœuvre considérable pour stimuler la productivité en favorisant la croissance de son secteur numérique et en stimulant l'innovation numérique. Cela nécessite de renforcer le réservoir national de compétences numériques, de veiller à ce que les réglementations évoluent avec les changements technologiques et de faciliter les exportations des entreprises exploitant les technologies numériques. La Nouvelle-Zélande dispose d'un cadre institutionnel solide pour réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre mais doit mettre en œuvre des mesures de réduction supplémentaires pour atteindre ses objectifs. Le prix du carbone doit augmenter substantiellement, combiné à des mesures complémentaires efficaces.



Understanding adults’ attitudes towards the environment is necessary to gauge the opportunities and challenges of creating effective and politically-feasible climate policies. Using data from the Wellcome Global Monitor 2020, the European Social Survey (Round 8), World Values Survey and EM-DAT, this paper examines how adults’ environmental attitudes vary within and across countries and details how environmental attitudes are associated with adults’ engagement in pro-environmental behaviours and support for environmentally-friendly policies. The paper explores whether the extent to which individuals prioritise the environment over the state of the economy or vice versa depends on individuals’ exposure to natural disasters or negative labour market conditions. Results indicate that people’s economic vulnerability and the sectors they work in impact their attitudes towards their environment and support for public policy. Furthermore, the findings suggest that increases in unemployment and exposure to natural disasters influence the extent to which individuals prioritise the environment.

This paper explores the relationship between adoption of ultra-fast broadband (UFB) and the export propensity of New Zealand firms. Previous literature have shown that the Internet facilitates exports by reducing search costs and informational frictions in establishing trade relationships. However, the role of faster Internet that enables the use of more recent, advanced, data-intensive digital technologies has not been well explored. This paper shows empirically that adoption of fibre broadband is associated with a higher propensity to enter exporting by New Zealand firms, suggesting that faster Internet has an additional role over traditional Internet in facilitating exporting. The paper also shows that firms that were already using the Internet more intensively prior to adopting fibre experience a stronger increase in export propensity following fibre adoption than those with less intensive Internet use, and that the positive relationship between fibre uptake and exporting is primarily observed among services firms. Instrumental variable analysis to assess the causal relationship between fibre uptake and exporting suggests that the higher export entry among fibre users is driven by self-selection of firms with higher export propensity into fibre uptake.

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