L’instauration de sociétés durables, équitables et résilientes est le défi qui se pose à l’humanité au XXIe siècle. Pour réaliser cette ambition, la communauté internationale du développement a besoin d’un cadre de référence commun, universel, pour travailler en plus étroite coopération. Les Objectifs de développement durable (ODD) répondent manifestement à ce besoin, mais des problèmes d’ordre technique, politique et structurel empêchent les fournisseurs de coopération pour le développement de les utiliser comme cadre de résultats commun.

S'appuyant sur sept études de cas, cette publication identifie deux facteurs déterminants et un évènement majeur qui peuvent aider à surmonter ces défis. En premier lieu, la prise en main par les pays doit être soutenue par la communauté internationale. En second lieu, les partenaires au développement doivent changer leur organisation pour réaliser les ODD. Enfin, en obligeant les gouvernements et les partenaires au développement à redéfinir leurs stratégies à long terme et à revoir leurs mécanismes internes, la pandémie de COVID-19 offre une occasion rare d’utiliser le cadre des ODD collectivement comme une feuille de route vers la reprise : cette crise peut changer la donne.


Achieving sustainable, equitable and resilient societies is humankind’s challenge for the 21st century. In pursuit of this ambition, the international development community needs a shared, universal framework, within which to work more closely together. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the obvious answer, but a number of technical, political and organisational challenges prevent development co-operation providers from using them as their common results framework. Based on seven case studies, this publication identifies two critical factors and one game changer that can help overcome those challenges. First, country leadership needs to be supported by the international community. Second, development partners need to change their set-ups in order to deliver on the SDGs. Finally, by forcing governments and development partners to reset their long-term strategies and rethink their internal systems, the COVID-19 pandemic provides them with a rare opportunity to use the SDG framework collectively as a roadmap to recovery: this can be a game changer.

  • 16 Apr 2020
  • OECD, Policy Studies Institute
  • ページ数: 172

Addressing rural development is key for Ethiopia’s growth process. A series of government-led structural reforms have contributed to sustained growth in the country over the last two decades as well as to considerable poverty reduction in rural areas. However, Ethiopia faces critical challenges it will need to overcome to meet the needs of a growing rural population. In practice, this will require updating the existing rural development strategy in order to better integrate the interaction of rural and urban areas. Policy approaches that account for the fast urbanisation process experienced in the country will therefore be key to improving the well-being of rural populations and promoting national growth.

This report takes a spatial approach to study Ethiopia’s rural development strategies. It highlights the need to develop stronger and more functional linkages between rural and urban areas. As such, the development of intermediary cities and small urban centres provides large scope for inclusive rural transformation. The report is the result of rigorous analysis, and extensive consultations with national and international stakeholders. It identifies some of the key challenges faced by rural areas and provides a series of recommendations to enhance Ethiopia’s rural development strategies.

Governments and providers of development co-operation increasingly use Sustainable Development Goal indicators to guide their policies and practices. The close examination of three large recipients of development co-operation: Ethiopia, Kenya and Myanmar across the sectors of Education, Sanitation and Energy reveals four inter-related challenges in using SDG indicators at country level. First, the cost of using specific SDG indicators varies in relation to indicator complexity – complementary investments in country statistical systems may be necessary. Second, providers synchronising their country-level results planning with partner countries find it easier to align to and measure SDG indicators together with the partner country and other providers. Third, reliance on joint monitoring approaches is helping providers reduce the cost of SDG monitoring. Finally, while disaggregating SDG data by gender and by urban-rural dimensions is common, other data disaggregation relevant to ensure that no one is left behind are rare.

Social protection is at the centre of Ethiopia’s development policy. It is instrumental in reducing poverty and increasing the resilience of the population. The Government of Ethiopia (GoE) has published a new set of policy frameworks for social protection that envisage the expansion of social protection to cover a greater proportion of Ethiopians against a broader range of risks, and that call for social protection to be increasingly financed from domestic sources rather than by donors. A financing strategy for the implementation of this vision has been identified as a priority by the GoE. This study responds to this requirement. It provides a comprehensive mapping of social protection spending across the five focus areas of the national social protection policy and analyses the fiscal space available for different spending scenarios up to 2025/26. The study focuses on two issues in particular: the role of donor financing for social protection and the relationship between humanitarian relief and social protection spending.

This working paper is a case study on Ethiopia and Uganda as countries of destination for refugees. The case study looks at the approaches adopted in Ethiopia and Uganda to promote refugee self-reliance and enable refugees to work to earn income. It compares outcomes in the countries, with a specific focus on access to employment and business creation, including legal and socio-economic barriers. The case study draws from a number of evaluations of efforts by the international community to support Ethiopian and Ugandan initiatives. The case study was undertaken as part of a wider research project on learning from evaluations to improve responses to refugee crises in developing countries and supports the synthesis paper "Responding to Refugee Crises in Developing Countries: What Can We Learn From Evaluations?"

  • 26 Apr 2017
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 96

This strategic foresight report assesses the interaction between demographics, economic development, climate change and social protection in six countries in East Africa between now and 2065: Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The report combines population projections with trends in health, urbanisation, migration and climate change and identifies the implications for economic development and poverty. It concludes by identifying policies to address seven grand challenges for social protection planners in national governments and donor agencies which emerge from the projections. These include: eliminating extreme poverty; extending social insurance in a context of high informality; the rapid growth of the working-age population, in particular the youth; adapting social protection to urban settings; protecting the poor from the effects of climate change; harnessing a demographic dividend; and substantially increasing funding for social protection.

Climate-related disasters have inflicted increasingly high losses on developing countries, and with climate change, these losses are likely to worsen. Improving country resilience against climate risks is therefore vital for achieving poverty reduction and economic development goals.

This report discusses the current state of knowledge on how to build climate resilience in developing countries. It argues that climate-resilient development requires moving beyond the climate-proofing of existing development pathways, to consider economic development objectives and resilience priorities in parallel. Achieving this will require political vision and a clear understanding of the relation between climate and development, as well as an adapted institutional set-up, financing arrangements, and progress monitoring and evaluation. The report also discusses two priorities for climate-resilient development: disaster risk management and the involvement of the private sector.

The report builds on a growing volume of country experiences on building climate resilience into national development planning. Two country case studies, Ethiopia and Colombia, are discussed in detail.

  • 05 Jun 2013
  • Steve Bass, Shannon Siyao Wang, Tadele Ferede, Daniel Fikreyesus
  • ページ数: 42
Ethiopian society, economy and environment are so intimately interlinked that systematic attention is essential if clashes are to be resolved and synergies realised. For example, the majority of poor people are principally dependent on agriculture but, in turn, society is dependent on farmers managing land well to sustain water supplies, biodiversity and other environmental services. Such relationships are dynamic and increasingly intense: climate change, rising population, resource scarcities and price volatilities put them all under pressure. An integrated perspective that works operationally is needed – one that makes economic, social and environmental sense and that inspires stakeholders. The holistic approach that the Ethiopian Government has recently developed aims to tackle the problems inherent in growth paths that produce environmental problems, and to realise potentials from investing in Ethiopia’s natural assets. For example, the country’s agricultural products and potential for green hydroelectric power are unique attributes that could drive development in ways that are environmentally sound and provide new jobs and satisfying livelihoods...

This paper studies the development of indigenous insurance institutions set up to help cover the high costs of funerals, using evidence from rural areas in Tanzania and Ethiopia. Many of these institutions tend to co-exist within the same community and are based on well-defined rules and regulations, often offering premium-based insurance for funeral expenses, as well as, in many cases, other forms of insurance and credit to help address hardship. The paper argues that the characteristics and inclusiveness of these institutions make them well placed as models to broaden insurance provision and other development activities in these communities. In Ethiopia, there is some encouraging experience with using these institutions, as reviewed in this paper. However, the paper argues that their fragility as institutions is well illustrated by current pressures related to HIV/AIDS, as well as by their apparent resistance to engage more broadly with NGOs and government agencies. As a ...

The land value capture system is poorly developed in the country. The most prominent instrument is strategic land management, due to the land lease policy in place since 1993. Land readjustment takes place when the government initiates a redevelopment project. There is no legal framework for charges for development rights or developer obligations. Although national guidelines indicate that infrastructure provision must be based on the principles of cost recovery and cost sharing, further legislation on infrastructure levy has not been developed yet. The high level of land informality and the lack of administrative capacities constitute challenges to the use of land value capture instruments.

The Rural Development Strategy Review (RDSR) of Ethiopia studies the rural-urban transformation process of the country, along with the evolution of rural development strategies, and identifies potential areas of reform. This overview summarises the main results and recommendations of the RDSR. It recognises the large and continuous efforts of the Government of Ethiopia (GoE) in promoting rural development and highlights the increasingly important roles of intermediary cities. Ethiopia’s socio‑economic landscape is fast changing, governed by three main transformations: economic, demographic and spatial. These transformations will bring both challenges and opportunities. However, the current framework for rural development, the Agricultural Development-Led Industrialisation (ADLI) strategy, may not be capable of fully addressing these challenges and reap on the benefits of rising opportunities. Thus, this report calls for a shift in paradigm, and updating of the current strategy, in order to maintain Ethiopia’s successful economic path and promote an inclusive rural-urban transformation.

Since the mid-1990s, Ethiopia has implemented a series of successful strategies to promote economic growth and social progress, and improve rural population well-being. These reforms have led Ethiopia to experience sustained growth between 2004 and 2018, with an average annual growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of 7.4%, outperforming most sub-Saharan African countries. Moreover, large government investment has been directed at improving agricultural productivity, as well as addressing the multiple needs of rural populations. As a result, between 2000 and 2016, the share of rural population considered poor decreased from 45% to 25%.

Ethiopia is urbanising at an unprecedented rate and intermediary cities are at the centre of its urbanisation process. The growth of Ethiopia’s intermediary cities can foster rural transformation and facilitate the development of a more balanced urban system. However, the potential for rural-urban transformation depends on creating strong reciprocal linkages. This chapter analyses a number of Ethiopian intermediary cities, and their roles in facilitating rural development. It highlights that Ethiopia’s intermediary cities serve as market hubs for rural goods, act as key destination for rural migrants, and provide employment opportunities. However, it is argued that some of the linkages between rural and urban areas remain weak, limiting the scope for rural-urban transformation. It calls for development of stronger knowledge base on Ethiopia’s intermediary cities and their roles for rural development, as well as better co-ordination between rural and urban policies in order to promote an inclusive rural transformation process.

Countries like Ethiopia are placing rural areas at the centre of their national development efforts. With almost 80% of its total population residing in rural areas, and a similar share of employment in agriculture, Ethiopia has made rural development a priority in its development agenda. Starting in the mid-1990s, Ethiopia has implemented a series of reforms focusing on promoting agricultural development coupled with unprecedented public investment in pro-poor sectors. As a result, Ethiopia has achieved a two-digit economic growth rate and reduced rural poverty by half. However, as is the case of many countries in the region, Ethiopia is confronted today with a series of challenges that call for a revision of the existing policy framework for rural development.

Rural development is at the centre of Ethiopia’s national development agenda. Indeed, the Government of Ethiopia has put considerable efforts and resources in establishing an explicit rural development strategy, as well as launching a series of sectoral programmes targeting the multidimensional needs of rural areas. This chapter reviews the evolution of Ethiopia’s rural development policies since 1991. Moreover, given the growth in Ethiopia’s urbanisation, and its catalyst role for rural development, it also reviews the progression of Ethiopia’s urban policies and their interactions with rural policy. It highlights that, although national development plans are evolving and recognising the role of urban areas for structural transformation, rural and urban policies remain fragmented. It argues that fragmented policies can limit the scope for stronger rural‑urban linkages. Thus, the chapter calls for better co-ordination of urban and rural policies in order to reap the benefits of Ethiopia’s ongoing changes and facilitate rural-urban transformation.

Ethiopia is now at a critical moment of its rural-urban transformation process. Ethiopia’s fast changing socio-economic landscape brings a series of new challenges and opportunities. This chapter builds on the analysis of Ethiopia’s rural-urban transformation (Chapter 1), the role of intermediary cities for rural development (Chapter 2), and the evolution of rural policy (Chapter 3), as well as the extensive consultations held with key Ethiopian government representatives, academic and international experts. It highlights the need for a shift in paradigm towards rural development strategies and argues that the ADLI should be updated in order to effectively address Ethiopia’s future development challenges. To this end, four main areas of reform are proposed: a new approach to agricultural development; mobilising resources and scaling up investment to improve the well-being of rural populations; enhancing co-ordination between rural and urban policies; and complementing the existing policy framework with a territorial approach.

Ethiopia has achieved sustained economic growth since early 2000s, which led to significant poverty reduction and an overall improvement in well-being in rural and urban areas. The growth was led by a series of structural reforms which started in mid-1990s, and promoted the Agricultural Development-Led Industrialisation (ADLI) strategy. Today Ethiopia’s socio-economic landscape is changing governed by three main trends: an economic, a demographic, and a spatial transformation. This chapter analyses the ways in which these changes are shaping Ethiopia’s rural-urban transformation. It highlights that these three transformations will have a significant impact in rural areas. Moreover, it also highlights that, although Ethiopia’s structural reforms have led to large improvements in rural and urban well-being, the poverty gap between the two territories is now widening. Addressing rural development will require strategies that account for these transformations, and consider the inherent linkages between rural and urban areas.

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