Small island developing states (SIDS) are among the most vulnerable countries to the impacts of the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis, which is disrupting key economic sectors that SIDS’ undiversified and already fragile economies strongly rely upon. While they are succeeding to contain the health emergency, SIDS are faced with severe economic impacts which require bold government action and adequate international support. This policy brief: (i) highlights the impacts of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic across SIDS; (ii) provides an overview of the support delivered by development co-operation providers to face the crisis; and (iii) provides suggestions to ensure that international support can lead to a fast and sustainable recovery in SIDS: a ‘blue’ recovery.

This paper uses network analysis to map and characterise live animal trade in West Africa. Building on a database of 42 251 animal movements collected by the Permanent Inter-State Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) from 2013-17, it describes the structure of regional livestock trade at the network, trade community and market levels. Despite yearly fluctuations in the volumes and spatial patterns of trade, the paper shows that regional livestock trade operates on well-established trade corridors as animals flow in specific directions. The study also confirms that livestock trade is structured around several national and cross-border groups of markets that exchange more animals than expected by chance. Close to two-thirds of all animals are shipped internationally, indicating that regional animal trade in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is remarkably cross-border. Finally, the paper finds that the hub markets that concentrate the most shipments also handle more animals and trade with more markets. Additionally, peripheral markets have more defined roles as primarily origins or destinations of animal shipments than markets in the core of the network. Of the nine key markets identified, three are close to borders, highlighting the importance of Nigeria as a livestock consumption destination for regional livestock production.

L’objectif de cette note est d’analyser l’évolution temporelle et spatiale des violences impliquant les femmes en Afrique de l’Ouest au cours des 20 dernières années. Une première partie montre que le nombre de victimes civiles des conflits ouest-africains dépasse désormais celui attribué aux batailles entre le gouvernement et les groupes armés. Le contrôle de la population civile est désormais devenu l’un des enjeux majeurs des insurrections de la région. Cette évolution conduit à une augmentation des violences faites aux femmes, qui sont souvent les premières victimes des luttes identitaires. Une seconde partie montre que les femmes participent également aux actes de violence, notamment par le biais des attentats-suicides dans le bassin du lac Tchad. Ce phénomène est cependant en forte diminution du fait de la perte de contrôle territorial de Boko Haram depuis le milieu des années 2010. En conclusion, la note souligne la nécessité de mettre en œuvre des stratégies contre-insurrectionnelles qui visent primordialement à protéger les populations, notamment les femmes.

This Policy Paper summarises key messages from the case study on European Union payments to Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau for the conservation of marine protected areas under the Fisheries Partnership Agreements. The detailed case study is available in the 2017 OECD report The Political Economy of Biodiversity Policy Reform. A separate “Policy Highlights” brochure, which distils key messages and lessons learned from the full report is also available.

This chapter examines efforts to establish sustainable financing for marine protected areas in the biodiversity-rich West African countries of Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau. The case study focusses on how both countries secured financial resources from Fisheries Partnership Agreements with the European Union to capitalise conservation trust funds that are intended to provide long-term and sustainable financing for marine protected areas. This case study draws lessons from the political economy aspects of establishing and capitalising these trust funds. It emphasises the importance of building a shared understanding of the benefits of marine ecosystems to an economically important industry. It also highlights the role of environmental NGOs to secure agreement among key actors and how advances to secure sustainable financing for marine conservation can be threatened by changing political priorities.

A evolução macroeconómica da Guiné-Bissau tem sido afetada pelo golpe de Estado ocorrido em 12 de Abril de 2012. A taxa de crescimento da economia em 2012 deverá ser de -1.5%, contra 5.3% em 2011. Esta desaceleração explica-se pela queda registada na produção e no preço da castanha de caju nos mercados internacionais. A castanha de caju contribui, em média, em 30% para o valor acrescentado do sector primário. O seu preço médio de venda, que se situava nos 1.350 dólares americanos (USD), por tonelada, em 2011, fixou-se, em termos médios, em 1 081 USD, por tonelada, em 2012. Para 2013 e 2014, as taxas esperadas de crescimento real do PIB são, respectivamente, 4.2% e 3.5%. A inflação, que atingiu 5.0% em 2011, devido à alta registada nos preços dos produtos importados deverá ajustar-se dada a esperada evolução macroeconómica. A retoma gradual das actividades e o abastecimento adequado do mercado interno deverão fazer baixar a inflação para cerca de 2.1% em 2012. Para 2013 e 2014, a inflação estimada é de, 3.3% e 2.5%, respectivamente.

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