• 25 May 2023
  • Andrew Davies, Péter Vági
  • ページ数: 55

The institutions that make up the centre of government (CoG) play a crucial role in the policymaking process and help to ensure that government decisions are timely, evidence-informed, strategic and consistent. Despite this prominent role, the CoG often has the reputation of being somewhat opaque in terms of its structure and ways of working. This report presents an overview of the role and functions of the CoG of five European Neighbourhood Policy East countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine – from a comparative perspective, both with respect to each other and in comparison with CoGs in OECD and EU countries. The report explores the CoG’s role in policy co-ordination, how it supports quality decision making, its contribution to strategic planning and its role in managing European integration issues. The report highlights strengths and challenges in the ways that the CoG institutions operate in the five countries and suggests areas for which policy dialogue and exchange of experience with OECD and EU Members could help to enhance outcomes.

Russia’s war against Ukraine is causing a humanitarian, social and economic crisis for the Ukrainian people. The consequences of this full-scale military invasion are disrupting the global supply of commodities, sharply increasing food and energy prices, and threating the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries with established commercial and financial ties with the economies of Russia and Ukraine appear to be particularly vulnerable.

Assessing the Impact of Russia’s War against Ukraine on Eastern Partner Countries investigates the exposure of Eastern Partner countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine) to the economic shocks caused by the war, and in particular through the impact that the conflict is having on inflation, migration, remittances, investment and trade.

This report is published as part of the multi-country project “EU4Business: From Policies to Action – phase 2”, implemented in the Eastern Partnership with the financial support of the European Union within the EU4Business initiative.

European Neighbourhood East countries have been actively engaged in improving service delivery for citizens and businesses for some time. Some have opted for flagship initiatives (often with large-scale, one-stop shop solutions), some for digitalisation of services, while some have taken an incremental approach towards the service delivery modernisation process. This comparative paper outlines the state of play in the design and delivery of public administrative services in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Public administrative services cover the vast array of interactions with (and within) government: making enquiries, applications, registrations and payments, and receiving information, documentation, decisions and funds. These contacts allow service users (citizens, businesses and non-governmental organisations) to exercise rights, access entitlements, execute obligations and achieve ambitions. As well as the description and analysis of the general service delivery framework(s), institutional set-up and practical implementation, this paper presents a comparative analysis of a set of life events and highlights inspiring practices from the different countries.

Since the 1990’s, the countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) have made great progress in pursuing economic development that is also environmentally sustainable. The countries, in collaboration with the GREEN Action Task Force hosted by the OECD, has developed a number of policies aiming to improve environmental quality and social well-being, while creating opportunities for strong economic growth and decent jobs in the region.

This report was prepared as the OECD contribution to the ninth “Environment for Europe” (EfE) Conference (5-7 October 2022). In this context, this report aims to: (i) take stock of progress on policy developments towards a green economy in the EECCA countries; (ii) showcase selected contributions from of the Green Action Task Force that integrate environmental and climate considerations into development pathways of the EECCA countries, and mobilise finance for action; and (iii) provide an outlook for the future, including priority actions that the Task Force in co-operation with the EECCA countries should take to enhance the momentum for green economy transition in the region.

  • 18 Jul 2022
  • International Energy Agency
  • ページ数: 50

Long-term energy planning is central to a country’s strategic direction. Without it, governments may end up relying on a patchwork of policies and legislation that can be incoherent and ill-suited for the complex challenges countries are increasingly faced with. Good long-term energy planning encompasses domestic and foreign policy, while touching on many key areas of the economy including industry, natural resources and trade. The process involves multiple stakeholders across the government, but also brings in the private sector as well as citizens, as it aims to set out a strategic path towards a clear goal.

Azerbaijan, like many of its peers, is looking to understand how best to meet the opportunities and complexities of the global clean energy transition. The 2014-2015 oil shock prompted the government to consider and draft a slate of new laws and reform packages, and at present efforts are being made to finalise and pass an energy strategy. The price volatility seen in global markets over 2020-2022 is making it even clearer that energy planning using scenario analysis and modelling will help countries successfully respond to new and unexpected challenges in a resilient fashion.

This roadmap details the necessary steps in building that process and exploring relevant policy options that producer economies have pursued, which may be relevant to Azerbaijan. It then discusses data collection and survey design, which are key to establishing the base for energy modelling. The roadmap then looks at energy modelling and its role in policy making.

This roadmap aims to help Azerbaijan reconsider the policy planning process as it looks to connect key laws and reforms into a greater energy strategy. It also sets out a path for Azerbaijan to make this process sustainable and iterative, connecting its policymakers with its statisticians, and investing in in-house modelling capacity. Every country must choose its own energy path, based on its specific needs and resources, but having a long-term plan can smooth out that path significantly.

This pilot report assesses Azerbaijan’s anti-corruption framework and practices based on the criteria to test the new methodology for the 5th round of monitoring under the Istanbul Anti-Corruption Action Plan. The report examines Azerbaijan's anti-corruption policy documents, the investigation and prosecution of corruption offences and the overall enforcement framework. The report also identifies areas for improvement and provides recommendations.

  • 27 Apr 2022
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 71

The COVID-19 crisis has given renewed urgency to efforts to support the digitalisation of SMEs. However, many SMEs lag behind larger firms in the digital transition as a result of important barriers with respect to skills, innovation, infrastructure, regulation and finance. The SME digital gap slows productivity growth and increases inequalities among people, firms and places. In this context, the Government of Azerbaijan requested the OECD’s assistance in supporting the design and implementation of strategies and policies to foster the digital transformation of Azerbaijan’s SME sector.

На основе стандартной методологии ОЭСР в исследовании приведены количественные оценки мер государственной поддержки как на потребление, так и на производство угля, нефти, нефтепродуктов, природного газа, а также электрической и тепловой энергии, производимой на основе этих видов ископаемого топлива. В докладе представлены основные выводы анализа механизмов субсидирования ископаемых видов топлива в шести странах Восточного партнерства (ВП) Европейского союза: Армении, Азербайджане, Беларуси, Грузии, Республике Молдова и Украине. В исследовании обновлены оценки публикации 2018 года «Энергетические субсидии в странах Восточного партнерства ЕС» с представлением данных и оценок за 2016-2019 годы. Анализ сфокусирован на оценке двух основных типов субсидий на ископаемые виды топлива: прямых трансфертах средств производителям и потребителям и налоговых расходах. В докладе кратко рассмотрены меры политики в области налогообложения и ценообразования в энергосекторе, которые непосредственно или косвенно влияют на динамику субсидий в этом регионе. В приложениях к докладу приведены детальные оценки всех мер поддержки для каждой из шести стран.


Based on the OECD standard methodology, the study presents quantitative estimates of government support to consumers and producers of coal, oil and related petroleum products and natural gas, and electricity and heat generated from these fossil fuels. This report summarises the main findings of the analysis of fossil-fuel subsidy schemes in the six European Union's Eastern Partner (EaP) countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine. The study updates the 2018 Inventory of Energy Subsidies in the EU’s Eastern Partnership Countries by providing data and estimates for 2016‑19. The analysis focuses on measuring two major types of fossil-fuel subsidies: direct transfers of funds to producers and consumers; and tax expenditure. This report also briefly discusses the taxation and energy pricing policies that have had direct or indirect impact on the evolution of fossil-fuel subsidies in the region. Detailed estimates of all individual support measures for each of the six countries are provided in Annexes to the report.

  • 30 Jul 2021
  • OECD, United Nations Children's Fund
  • ページ数: 93

Countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have clear aspirations to strengthen civic participation and increase prosperity for all. A highly skilled and knowledgeable population is critical to achieving these goals, which makes creating and maintaining high quality and equitable education systems a vital part of regional development efforts. Results from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) show that learning outcomes in the region have generally improved, but that the improvement has not been equitable. While countries in the region are producing some of the top performing students in the world, many other students are being left behind.

This report, jointly developed by OECD and UNICEF, analyses PISA data in detail to identify the strengths, challenges and unique features of education systems in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Drawing upon a rich knowledge base of education policy and practice in the region, it makes recommendations about how systems in the region can provide an excellent education for all students. This report will be of interest to regional policy-makers as well as individuals who wish to learn more about education in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

This report analyses planned infrastructure projects, decision-making frameworks related to infrastructure development and strategic planning documents in the six countries of the EU Eastern Partnership: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. It compares current investment flows with countries' national development objectives to identify misalignments and provides policy-makers with recommendations to improve the integration of climate change and other environmental concerns into infrastructure development decision-making processes. The report presents a comprehensive overview of infrastructure investment, primarily in the transport and energy sectors, throughout the region and identifies the risks and opportunities emerging from current investment patterns.

Как и во многих странах, пандемия COVID-19 отрицательно сказалась на экономике стран Восточной Европы, Кавказа и Центральной Азии, ответные меры правительств которых заключались в смягчении воздействия пандемии на систему здравоохранения и оказании поддержки затронутым пандемией предприятиям и работникам. В рамках ответных мер, большинство стран ВЕКЦА также реализовали меры, которые могут способствовать достижению экологических целей. Тем не менее многое еще остается сделать, чтобы планы восстановления ускорили переход к «зеленой» экономике, тем самым повышая устойчивость к внешним шокам. В настоящем отчете проводится анализ мер, направленных на борьбу с COVID-19, предпринимаемых в 11 странах ВЕКЦА, на основании их потенциала к ускорению перехода к более «зеленой», стойкой к изменению климата и низкоуглеродной экономике. В рекомендациях предлагаются способы обеспечения содействия усилий правительств восстановлению экономики с учетом целей по борьбе с изменением климата, сохранению биологического разнообразия и расширению природоохранной деятельности.


As in many countries, the economies of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) have been negatively affected by the global COVID-19 pandemic. Their governments responded by addressing the health impacts and providing relief to affected businesses and workers. Many EECCA countries have also implemented measures that will help advance environmental objectives as part of their rescue and recovery plans. Nevertheless, much more needs to be done to ensure that recovery plans accelerate a green transition, thereby building resilience against external shocks. This policy paper analyses measures related to COVID-19 in 11 EECCA countries based on their potential to advance the transition to a greener, climate-resilient and low-carbon economy. Recommendations suggest ways to ensure that governments align efforts to support economic recovery with their objectives on climate change, biodiversity and wider environmental protection.


The COVID-19 crisis has had a profound impact on SME access to finance. In particular, the sudden drop in revenues created acute liquidity shortages, threatening the survival of many viable businesses. The report documents an increase in demand for bank lending in the first half of 2020, and a steady supply of credit thanks to government interventions. On the other hand, other sources of finance declined, in particular early-stage equity.

This paper, a special edition of Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs, focuses on the impacts of COVID-19 on SME access to finance, along with government policy responses. It reveals that the pre-crisis financing environment was broadly favourable for SMEs and entrepreneurs, who benefited from low interest rates, loose credit standards and an increasingly diverse offer of financing instruments.

It documents the unprecedented scope and scale of the policy responses undertaken by governments world-wide, and details their key characteristics, and outlines the principal issues and policy challenges for the next phases of the pandemic, such as the over-indebtedness of SMEs and the need to continue to foster a diverse range of financing instruments for SMEs.


Ce rapport est une édition spéciale du Tableau de bord de l’OCDE sur le financement des PME et des entrepreneurs, publication phare de l’OCDE. Il examine en détail les conséquences du COVID-19 sur l’accès des PME au financement, ainsi que les mesures prises en conséquence par les pouvoirs publics. Il apparaît qu’avant la crise, les conditions de financement étaient globalement favorables pour les PME et les entrepreneurs, qui bénéficiaient de faibles taux d’intérêt, de critères accommodants d’octroi des crédits et d’une offre de plus en plus diversifiée d’instruments de financement. Mais la crise du COVID‑19 a profondément bouleversé l’accès des PME au financement. Plus particulièrement, l’effondrement brutal du chiffre d’affaires des entreprises a provoqué de graves pénuries de liquidités qui ont mis en danger la survie de bon nombre d’entreprises viables. Ce rapport fait état d’une augmentation de la demande de prêts bancaires au cours du premier semestre de 2020, et d’une stabilité de l’offre de crédit grâce à l’action des pouvoirs publics. Parallèlement, on a observé un recul d’autres sources de financement, en particulier l’apport de fonds propres au stade du démarrage. Le rapport réunit des données sur le périmètre et l’ampleur des mesures prises par les gouvernements dans le monde, et en précise les principales caractéristiques. Il décrit les principaux enjeux stratégiques du financement des PME qui se poseront au cours des prochaines phases de la pandémie ; il s’agira en effet d’éviter le surendettement des PME, de promouvoir une gamme diversifiée d’instruments de financement, de stimuler la création d’entreprises et de renforcer la résilience des PME par des mesures structurelles.


The impact of the Covid-19 crisis on public health in the six EU Eastern Partner (EaP) countries remains limited with 187 reported fatalities in the region as of 14 April. Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia (because of their proximity to Iran) saw the region’s first cases of Covid-19 in late February. Swift containment measures and limited intra-regional mobility have so far helped limit the spread of the virus, and the number of recorded cases remains relatively low in the South Caucasus.

В настоящем отчете анализируются планируемые инфраструктурные проекты, основы принятия решений относительно развития инфраструктуры и документы по вопросам стратегического планирования, существующие в восьми странах Центральной Азии и Кавказа: Азербайджане, Грузии, Казахстане, Кыргызской Республике, Монголии, Таджикистане, Туркменистане и Узбекистане. В нем проводится сопоставление текущих инвестиционных потоков с национальными целями в области развития стран для указания несоответствий между ними и предоставляются рекомендации директивным органам для более полной интеграции проблем, связанных с изменением климата, и прочих экологических вопросов в процессы принятия решений относительно развития инфраструктуры. В отчете представлен комплексный обзор инфраструктурных инвестиций, в основном в сфере транспорта и энергетике, осуществляемых в регионе, а также указаны риски и возможности, связанные с нынешними тенденциями в области инвестиций.


«Индекс экономической политики в сфере МСП: страны Восточного партнерства в 2020 г. Оценка реализации Европейского акта о малом бизнесе» является уникальным инструментом сопоставительного анализа, который позволяет контролировать прогресс разработки и осуществления политики в области МСП в сравнении с передовыми практиками ЕС и международного сообщества. Он основывается на 10 принципах Европейского акта о малом бизнесе (АМБ), который предлагает широкий спектр мер, направленных на оказание поддержки предприятиям. Эти принципы служат руководящей основой для разработки и осуществления политики в сфере МСП. Настоящее исследование является третьим изданием из данной серии. Результаты первых двух исследований были опубликованы в 2012 и 2016 годах. В исследовании 2020 года представлен всесторонний обзор хода реализации десяти рекомендаций закона, а также анализируются успехи, достигнутые странами региона с 2016 года. Кроме того, в исследовании рассматриваются существующие проблемы, затрагивающие МСП в странах ВП, и предлагаются рекомендации по их решению на основе примеров передовой практики ЕС и других стран мира. В издание 2020 года также включена оценка трех новых направлений (защита конкуренции, принудительное исполнение договоров и коммерческая добросовестность), выходящих за рамки политики развития МСП и охватывающих ключевые приоритеты структурных реформ, которые имеют решающее значение для создания равных условий для предприятий всех размеров и форм собственности.

  • 17 Mar 2020
  • OECD, European Union, European Training Foundation, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • ページ数: 526

The SME Policy Index: Eastern Partner Countries 2020 – Assessing the Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe is a unique benchmarking tool to assess and monitor progress in the design and implementation of SME policies against EU and international best practice. It is structured around the ten principles of the Small Business Act for Europe (SBA), which provide a wide range of pro-enterprise measures to guide the design and implementation of SME policies. This report marks the third edition in this series, following assessments in 2012 and 2016. It provides a comprehensive overview of the state of play in the implementation of the ten SBA principles, and monitors progress made since 2016. It also identifies remaining challenges affecting SMEs in the Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries and provides recommendations to address them based on EU and international good practice examples. The 2020 edition also features a novelty: An assessment of three new dimensions going beyond core SME policy (competition, contract enforcement and business integrity) looking at key structural reform priorities that are critical to establishing a level playing field for enterprises of all sizes and ownership types.


This report analyses planned infrastructure projects, decision-making frameworks related to infrastructure development and strategic planning documents in eight countries in Central Asia and the Caucasus: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It compares current investment flows with countries' national development objectives to identify misalignments and provides policy-makers with recommendations to improve the integration of climate change and other environmental concerns into infrastucture development decision-making processes. The report presents a comprehensive overview of infrastructure investment, primarily in the transport and energy sectors, throughout the region and identifies the risks and opportunities emerging from current investment patterns.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error