In der Reihe der OECD-Wirtschaftsberichte über Deutschland werden die großen Herausforderungen untersucht, die sich dem Land stellen, die kurzfristigen Aussichten beurteilt und spezifische Politikempfehlungen formuliert. Die Sonderkapitel setzen sich eingehender mit bestimmten Themen auseinander. Die Tabellen und Abbildungen enthalten ausführliche statistische Informationen.

フランス語, 英語

Études économiques consacrées périodiquement par l'OCDE à l’économie de l’Allemagne. Chaque étude analyse les grands enjeux auxquels le pays fait face. Elle examine les perspectives à court terme et présente des recommandations détaillées à l’intention des décideurs politiques. Des chapitres thématiques analysent des enjeux spécifiques. Les tableaux et graphiques contiennent un large éventail de données statistiques.

英語, ドイツ語

OECD’s periodic surveys of the German economy. Each edition surveys the major challenges faced by the country, evaluates the short-term outlook, and makes specific policy recommendations. Special chapters take a more detailed look at specific challenges. Extensive statistical information is included in charts and graphs.

フランス語, ドイツ語

The green transformation of the economy is expected to lead to a sharp reduction in employment in carbon-intensive industries. For designing policies to support displaced workers, it is crucial to better understand the cost of job loss, whether there are specific effects of being displaced from a carbon-intensive sector and which workers are most at risk. By using German administrative labour market data and focusing on mass layoff events, we estimate the cost of involuntary job displacement for workers in high carbon-intensity sectors and compare it with the displacement costs for workers in low carbon-intensity sectors. We find that displaced workers from high carbon-intensity sectors have, on average, higher earnings losses and face stronger difficulties in finding a new job and recovering their earnings. Our results indicate that this is mainly due to human capital specificity, the regional clustering of carbon-intensive activities and higher wage premia in carbon-intensive firms. Workers displaced in high carbon-intensity sectors are older, face higher local labour market concentration and have fewer outside options for finding jobs with similar skill requirements. They have a higher probability to switch occupations and sectors, move to occupations that are more different in terms of skill requirements compared to the pre-displacement job, and are more likely to change workplace districts after displacement. Women, older workers and those with vocational degrees as well as workers in East Germany, experience particularly high costs in case they are displaced from high carbon-intensity sectors.

In the north-western corner of Germany, the Ems-Achse, a rural region, has witnessed a decade of economic growth. This growth has exacerbated labour shortages, primarily due to an aging population and the outmigration of youth. Acknowledging the potential of teleworking, regional stakeholders aim to explore its capacity to address labour gaps and attract a broader talent pool. This paper delves into three main dimensions for harnessing teleworking's potential: activating individuals who are not currently seeking employment, expanding the talent pool to include surrounding areas, and attracting workers from congested urban areas or overseas. To facilitate successful teleworking, the region can bolster its high-speed internet infrastructure, promote a culture of flexibility in management and nurture digital skills. Additionally, increasing opportunities for higher education, improving public transportation and enhancing international accessibility could help profile the Ems-Achse as an attractive hub for teleworkers.

  • 29 Jul 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 96

Après une décennie marquée par une croissance dynamique soutenue par les exportations, une baisse du chômage et des excédents budgétaires, la pandémie de COVID-19 et la crise énergétique ont mis au jour des faiblesses structurelles et fait ressortir la nécessité d’accélérer les transitions écologique et numérique. Dans le même temps, le vieillissement rapide de la population accentue les tensions sur les dépenses publiques et exacerbe les pénuries de main-d’œuvre qualifiée. Il est essentiel de réduire l’imposition du travail, en particulier pour les bas revenus et les deuxièmes apporteurs de revenu, de faciliter l’immigration de personnes qualifiées et d’améliorer l’éducation et la formation pour accroître l’offre de main-d’œuvre. Moderniser l’administration publique de façon à alléger la charge administrative et améliorer la qualité des services publics permettraient de favoriser l’innovation et la dynamique des entreprises. Afin de répondre aux besoins d’investissement considérables tout en préservant la viabilité des finances publiques, les autorités allemandes devront réduire les dépenses fiscales, qui sont souvent source de distorsions, régressives ou préjudiciables à l’environnement, et renforcer l’application de la législation fiscale, mais aussi accroître l’efficience des dépenses publiques et mieux hiérarchiser les priorités en la matière. Parvenir à la neutralité climatique en 2045 tout en préservant la compétitivité et la cohésion sociale nécessitera la mise en œuvre de politiques d’atténuation présentant un bon rapport coût-efficacité. L’Allemagne devrait renforcer la tarification du carbone et compléter ce dispositif par une réglementation sectorielle et des subventions judicieusement conçues, notamment pour stimuler la recherche-développement verte, développer les infrastructures de transport et réseaux d’électricité durables et décarboner le secteur du logement. L’utilisation des recettes issues de la tarification du carbone pour distribuer des aides aux ménages vulnérables et améliorer la qualité des politiques actives du marché du travail contribuerait à préserver la cohésion sociale.


ドイツ語, 英語

This reliable source of yearly data covers a wide range of statistics on international trade of OECD countries and provides detailed data in value by commodity and by partner country. Country tables are published in the order in which data become available. The sixth volume includes the OECD country groupings, OECD Total and EU28‑Extra.

For each country, this publication shows detailed tables relating to the Harmonised System HS 2012 classification, Sections and Divisions (one- and two- digit). Each table presents imports and exports of a given commodity with more than seventy partner countries or country groupings for the most recent five-year period available.

Germany intends to reach climate neutrality in 2045, tripling the speed of emission reductions that was achieved between 1990 and 2019. Soaring energy prices and the need to replace Russian energy imports have amplified the urgency to act. Various policy adjustments are needed to ensure implementation and achieve the transition to net zero cost-effectively. Lengthy planning and approval procedures risk slowing the expansion of renewables, while fossil fuel subsidies and generous tax exemptions limit the effectiveness of environmental policies. Germany should continue to rely on carbon pricing as a keystone of its mitigation strategy and aim to harmonise prices across sectors and make them more predictable. Carbon prices will be more effective if complemented by well-designed sectoral regulations and subsidies, especially for boosting green R&D, expanding sustainable transport and electricity network infrastructure, and decarbonising the housing sector. Subsidies for mature technologies and specific industries should be gradually phased out. Using carbon tax revenue to compensate low-income households and improve the quality of active labour market policies would help to support growth and ensure that the transition does not weaken social cohesion.

This paper investigates the demand for language skills using data on online job vacancies in 27 European Union member countries and the United Kingdom in 2021. Evidence indicates that although Europe remains a linguistically diverse labour market, knowing English confers unique advantages in certain occupations. Across countries included in the analyses, a knowledge of English was explicitly required in 22% of all vacancies and English was the sixth most required skill overall. A knowledge of German, Spanish, French and Mandarin Chinese was explicitly demanded in between 1% and 2% of all vacancies. One in two positions advertised on line for managers or professionals required some knowledge of English, on average across European Union member countries and across OECD countries in the sample. This compares with only one in ten positions for skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and among elementary occupations.

  • 13 Jun 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 100

This reliable and up-to-date source of OECD quarterly balance of payments and international merchandise trade statistics provides a detailed insight into the most recent trends in trading patterns for OECD countries with the rest of the world. Balance of payments data are presented adjusted for seasonal variations. International trade data are broken down by country. The series shown cover data for the last ten quarters and two years available. This quarterly publication is divided into three parts: I. Balance of payments and international trade, II. International merchandise trade by country and III. International trade by commodity (annual data). The third part is a special topic which changes with each publication.

Addressing 21st century development challenges requires investments in innovation, including the use of new approaches and technologies. Currently, many development organisations prioritise investments in isolated innovation pilots that leverage a specific approach or technology rather than pursuing a strategic approach to expand the organisation’s toolbox with innovations that have proven their comparative advantage over what is currently used.

This Working Paper addresses this challenge of adopting innovations. How can development organisations institutionalise a new way of working, bringing what was once novel to the core of how business is done?

Analysing successful adoption efforts across five DAC agencies, the paper lays out a proposed process for the adoption of innovations. The paper features five case-studies and concludes with a set of lessons and recommendations for policy makers on innovation management generally, and adoption of innovation in particular.

This dataset contains tax revenue collected by Germany. It provides detailed tax revenues by sector (Supranational, Federal or Central Government, State or Lander Government, Local Government, and Social Security Funds) and by specific tax, such as capital gains, profits and income, property, sales, etc.


  • 08 May 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 171

Die Umweltergebnisse haben sich in Deutschland in den vergangenen zehn Jahren weiter verbessert. Das Land verfolgt ehrgeizige Klimaziele, um bis 2045 Klimaneutralität und nach 2050 Negativemissionen zu erreichen. Dennoch muss Deutschland seine Klimamaßnahmen vor allem im Gebäude- und im Verkehrssektor weiter beschleunigen und sich ganzheitlich mit der Energie-, Klima- und Biodiversitätskrise auseinandersetzen. Als Reaktion auf die Energiekrise wurde eine Reihe von Maßnahmen ergriffen, deren Größenordnung und Reichweite historisch sind. Diese dürften die Energiewende in den kommenden Jahren deutlich schneller voranbringen. Außerdem verstärkt Deutschland sein Engagement in der Klimaanpassung auf allen staatlichen Ebenen und hat ein ehrgeiziges Förderprogramm für Investitionen in naturbasierte Lösungen aufgelegt. Dies ist die vierte Ausgabe des OECD-Umweltprüfberichts Deutschland. Er enthält 28 Empfehlungen, die Deutschland helfen sollen, seine Umweltergebnisse weiter zu verbessern.

  • 08 May 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 160

Germany has continued to improve its environmental performance over the past decade. It has ambitious climate targets with the aim to reach climate neutrality by 2045 and achieve negative emissions after 2050. Nevertheless, Germany will need to further accelerate climate action, particularly in the buildings and transport sectors, and address the triple crisis of energy, climate and biodiversity in an integrated and holistic manner. As part of its energy crisis response, Germany has taken a series of measures, which are historic in size and scope. They are set to massively accelerate its green energy transition in the coming years. It is also scaling up its engagement on climate change adaptation across all government levels and has initiated an ambitious programme to foster investments in nature-based solutions. This is the fourth OECD Environmental Performance Review of Germany. It provides 28 recommendations to help Germany further improve its environmental performance.

  • 08 May 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 181

Nach zehn Jahren mit dynamischem exportinduziertem Wachstum, sinkender Arbeitslosigkeit und Haushaltsüberschüssen zeigten die Pandemie und die Energiekrise, dass Deutschland strukturelle Schwachstellen aufweist und seine ökologische und digitale Transformation unbedingt beschleunigen muss. Gleichzeitig erhöht die rasche Bevölkerungsalterung den Druck auf die öffentlichen Finanzen und verschärft den Fachkräftemangel. Um das Arbeitsangebot zu erhöhen, ist es wichtig, die Steuern und Abgaben auf Arbeit insbesondere für Geringqualifizierte und Zweitverdienende zu senken, die Fachkräftemigration zu erleichtern und die Aus- und Weiterbildung zu verbessern. Eine modernisierte Verwaltung mit weniger Bürokratie und besseren öffentlichen Dienstleistungen würde sich positiv auf die wirtschaftliche Dynamik und die Innovationstätigkeit auswirken. Um den hohen Investitionsbedarf zu decken und gleichzeitig die Tragfähigkeit der öffentlichen Finanzen zu wahren, müssen Steuervergünstigen abgebaut werden, denn häufig sind sie verzerrend, regressiv oder umweltschädlich. Außerdem gilt es, den Steuervollzug zu stärken, die Ausgabeneffizienz im öffentlichen Sektor zu erhöhen und die Ausgaben besser zu priorisieren. Das Ziel der Klimaneutralität bis 2045 erfordert kosteneffiziente Maßnahmen, damit weder die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit noch der soziale Zusammenhalt geschwächt werden. Deutschland sollte die CO2-Bepreisung ausweiten, sie aber mit gut konzipierten sektorspezifischen Bestimmungen und Beihilfen kombinieren, um insbesondere grüne FuE zu fördern, den Ausbau nachhaltiger Verkehrs- und Stromnetzinfrastrukturen voranzutreiben und den Wohngebäudesektor zu dekarbonisieren. Die Einnahmen aus der CO2-Bepreisung sollten Niedrigeinkommenshaushalten zugutekommen und helfen, die aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitik zu verbessern.


フランス語, 英語
  • 08 May 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 158

After a decade of strong export-led growth, decreasing unemployment and fiscal surpluses, the COVID-19 pandemic and the energy crisis have revealed structural vulnerabilities and emphasised the need for accelerating the green and digital transitions. At the same time, rapid population ageing increases public spending pressures and exacerbates skilled labour shortages. Reducing labour taxes, particularly for low-skilled workers and second earners, facilitating skilled migration, and improving education and training are key to raise labour supply. Modernising the public administration to lower the administrative burden and improve public services would help to foster business dynamism and innovation. Addressing large investment needs while safeguarding fiscal sustainability will require reducing tax expenditures, which are often distortive, regressive or environmentally harmful, and strengthening tax enforcement, but also increasing public spending efficiency and better prioritising spending. Reaching climate neutrality in 2045 while safeguarding competitiveness and social cohesion will require cost-effective mitigation policies. Germany should strengthen carbon pricing, but complement this with well-designed sectoral regulations and subsidies, especially for boosting green R&D, expanding sustainable transport and electricity network infrastructure, and decarbonising the housing sector. Using carbon pricing receipts to support vulnerable households and improve the quality of active labour market policies would help to protect social cohesion.


ドイツ語, フランス語
This dataset includes pension funds statistics with OECD classifications by type of pension plans and by type of pension funds. All types of plans are included (occupational and personal, mandatory and voluntary). The OECD classification considers both funded and book reserved pension plans that are workplace-based (occupational pension plans) or accessed directly in retail markets (personal pension plans). Both mandatory and voluntary arrangements are included. The data includes plans where benefits are paid by a private sector entity (classified as private pension plans by the OECD) as well as those paid by a funded public sector entity. Data are presented in various measures depending on the variable: millions of national currency, millions of USD, thousands or unit.
This dataset comprises statistics pertaining to pensions indicators.It includes indicators such as occupational pension funds’asset as a % of GDP, personal pension funds’ asset as a % of GDP, DC pension plans’assets as a % of total assets. Pension fund and plan types are classified according to the OECD classification. Three dimensions cover this classification: pension plan type, definition type and contract type.

The Pensions at a Glance database includes reliable and internationally comparable statistics on public and mandatory and voluntary pensions. It covers 34 OECD countries and aims to cover all G20 countries. Pensions at a Glance reviews and analyses the pension measures enacted or legislated in OECD countries. It provides an in-depth review of the first layer of protection of the elderly, first-tier pensions across countries and provideds a comprehensive selection of pension policy indicators for all OECD and G20 countries.

This dataset contains data on metropolitan regions with demographic, labour, innovation and economic statistics by population, regional surface, population density, labour force, employment, unemployment, GDP, GDP per capita, PCT patent applications, and elderly dependency ratio.

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