Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine has had profound effects on the maritime sector. It directly disrupted maritime activities in the Black and Azov seas, causing the suspension of Ukrainian port operations and agricultural exports. Although an export corridor temporarily resumed activities, the termination of the agreement in July 2023 continues to affect Ukrainian shipping. International sanctions against Russia and Belarus have notably targeted shipowners and shipbuilders, restricting Russian ships' access to OECD ports. These sanctions have also halted orders for Russian ship owners in OECD countries, reducing new orders and vessel completions in Russian shipyards. While global seaborne trade and ship demand remain relatively unaffected, the war has prompted longer-term impacts such as altered trading routes, changes in energy demand and costs, potential implications for maritime decarbonisation, and an increase in "dark fleet" vessels.

The influx of highly qualified refugees from Ukraine has posed unique challenges for Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) policies and practices in host countries. Analysing recent survey results, this policy brief provides an overview of the diverse RPL measures countries across the OECD have implemented in order to ensure a swift continuation of learning for Ukrainian refugee students. From extending application deadlines to international cooperation on qualifications information sharing, the policy landscape is evolving rapidly to ensure these highly skilled individuals can be included effectively into new educational environments.

Post-war reconstruction in Ukraine will face challenges in public procurement, including corruption risks and lengthy procedures. Strengthening existing legal and institutional foundations, aligned with international standards, is crucial. Streamlining procurement, ensuring transparency, and promoting equality for domestic and foreign companies are vital. Central procurement institutions require support, extending to regional and local authorities. A transparent legal framework can pave the way for efficient and accountable procurement, enabling a resilient future. A unified legal framework for awarding all contracts for the reconstruction of Ukraine, regardless of the source of financing, would streamline the tendering process. It is recommendable that the framework, fully aligned with international standards, be based on the Ukrainian public procurement legislation. The multiplication of procedural rules and requirements would lead to an increase of the administrative burden and the time required of procurement officers as well as economic operators.

Це ринкове дослідження українського електроенергетичного сектору аналізує загальний стан ринкової конкуренції. Дослідження надає детальний огляд та оцінку регуляторної бази роботи ринку електричної енергії в Україні, а також аналіз існуючих перешкод для конкуренції на оптовому та роздрібному ринках. Даний звіт включає в себе низку рекомендацій спрямованих на усунення основних причин неефективної конкуренції, виконання яких на етапі післявоєнного відновлення внаслідок військової агресії Росії проти України, сприятиме розвитку добре функціонуючого, конкурентного електроенергетичного ектору.

  • 30 Jun 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 145

This market study analyses Ukraine’s electricity sector from a competition perspective. It provides a detailed description and assessment of the regulatory framework within which the Ukrainian electricity markets operate, as well as an analysis of the obstacles to competition in the wholesale and retail markets. This report includes recommendations to address the underlying causes of ineffective competition that, if implemented in the recovery phase following Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine, can contribute to achieving a well-functioning, competitive electricity sector.


Depuis le début de la guerre d’agression menée par la Russie contre l’Ukraine, la majorité des personnes réfugiées sont des femmes et des enfants. Cette situation pose des problèmes d’intégration d’une nature particulière. Dans la plupart des pays d’accueil, environ 70 % des réfugiés ukrainiens adultes sont des femmes et la plupart d’entre elles sont venues accompagnées de leurs enfants, dont environ 30 % sont mineurs. La plupart des pays de l’OCDE favorisent l’intégration socioéconomique des réfugiées ukrainiennes à l’aide de leurs systèmes existants d’intégration. Toutefois, les mesures d’intégration ont souvent été conçues en se basant sur des profils différents de compétences et une composition femmes/hommes différente des flux de réfugiés, et risquent donc d'affaiblir les résultats à long terme. Dans les pays de l’OCDE, certaines mesures ciblées prometteuses ont été mises en place pour favoriser l’intégration socioéconomique des réfugiées ukrainiennes. Ces mesures comprennent des services de conseil, des possibilités de travail en réseau, des formations et des stages, ainsi que des activités d'entraide à l'échelon local destinées aux femmes.


From the onset of Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine, most refugee arrivals have been women and children, creating unique challenges for integration. The share of women among adult refugees is around 70% in most host countries and many have arrived with children, with the share of minors around 30%. Most OECD countries are supporting the socio-economic integration of Ukrainian refugee women through their pre-existing mainstream integration systems. Refugee integration policies have been, however, often created with different gender and educational profiles in mind, which may weaken outcomes in the longer term. There are some promising targeted measures available in OECD countries to support the socio-economic integration of Ukrainian refugee women. These include counselling, networking opportunities, training, and work placements, but also general community-building activities aimed at women.

  • 25 May 2023
  • Andrew Davies, Péter Vági
  • ページ数: 55

The institutions that make up the centre of government (CoG) play a crucial role in the policymaking process and help to ensure that government decisions are timely, evidence-informed, strategic and consistent. Despite this prominent role, the CoG often has the reputation of being somewhat opaque in terms of its structure and ways of working. This report presents an overview of the role and functions of the CoG of five European Neighbourhood Policy East countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine – from a comparative perspective, both with respect to each other and in comparison with CoGs in OECD and EU countries. The report explores the CoG’s role in policy co-ordination, how it supports quality decision making, its contribution to strategic planning and its role in managing European integration issues. The report highlights strengths and challenges in the ways that the CoG institutions operate in the five countries and suggests areas for which policy dialogue and exchange of experience with OECD and EU Members could help to enhance outcomes.

This dataset includes pension funds statistics with OECD classifications by type of pension plans and by type of pension funds. All types of plans are included (occupational and personal, mandatory and voluntary). The OECD classification considers both funded and book reserved pension plans that are workplace-based (occupational pension plans) or accessed directly in retail markets (personal pension plans). Both mandatory and voluntary arrangements are included. The data includes plans where benefits are paid by a private sector entity (classified as private pension plans by the OECD) as well as those paid by a funded public sector entity. Data are presented in various measures depending on the variable: millions of national currency, millions of USD, thousands or unit.
This dataset comprises statistics pertaining to pensions indicators.It includes indicators such as occupational pension funds’asset as a % of GDP, personal pension funds’ asset as a % of GDP, DC pension plans’assets as a % of total assets. Pension fund and plan types are classified according to the OECD classification. Three dimensions cover this classification: pension plan type, definition type and contract type.

School destructions, population displacement or school closures mean that children in Ukraine have experienced varied disruptions in their education experience. Interventions that seek to reduce the variation in student learning levels need to accompany efforts to resume learning and deliver high-quality education for all. This brief puts the focus on academic interventions Ukraine could introduce to support learning recovery. It first examines strategies for assessing students’ skill levels and identifying potential learning losses in the current context. It then focuses on academic strategies the Ministry of Education can implement in the short and medium-term to help students recover lost learning opportunities, including adapting instructional strategies and pedagogies to individual needs, adapting the time of instruction, providing curricular flexibility and enabling fluid learning pathways within the school system. The brief concludes by putting forward a range of policy responses that can enhance the long-term effectiveness of learning recovery strategies in Ukraine.


Les destructions d'écoles, les déplacements de population ou les fermetures d'écoles signifient que les enfants en Ukraine ont connu diverses perturbations dans leur expérience éducative. Les interventions visant à réduire les variations des niveaux d'apprentissage des élèves doivent accompagner les efforts de reprise de l'apprentissage et de fourniture d'une éducation de haute qualité pour tous. Cette note met l'accent sur les interventions académiques que l'Ukraine pourrait mettre en place pour soutenir la reprise de l'apprentissage. Elle examine tout d'abord les stratégies d'évaluation des niveaux de compétences des élèves et d'identification des pertes d'apprentissage potentielles dans le contexte actuel. Elle se concentre ensuite sur les stratégies académiques que le ministère de l'éducation peut mettre en œuvre à court et à moyen terme pour aider les élèves à récupérer les opportunités d'apprentissage perdues, notamment en adaptant les stratégies d'instruction et les pédagogies aux besoins individuels, en adaptant le temps d'instruction, en assurant la flexibilité des programmes et en permettant des parcours d'apprentissage fluides au sein du système scolaire. La note conclut en proposant une série de réponses politiques susceptibles d'améliorer l'efficacité à long terme des stratégies de reprise de l'apprentissage en Ukraine.


До широкомасштабного вторгнення Росії 24 лютого 2022 року Україна досягла значного поступу в реалізації амбітних реформ регіонального розвитку та децентралізації. Результатом цих реформ стало створення 1 469 об’єднаних муніципалітетів, введення детальної багаторівневої структури планування регіонального розвитку, а також значне підвищення рівня надання місцевих державних послуг і державного фінансування регіонального та місцевого розвитку. Однак на шляху реформ виникли деякі проблеми, багато з яких були значно загострені війною Росії проти України. Ці проблеми включають збільшення регіональних економічних та демографічних розбіжностей і відмінностей у рівні добробуту, фрагментарну структуру фінансування регіонального розвитку, а також помітні розбіжності в адміністративних, кадрових і фіскальних можливостях муніципалітетів. У цьому звіті представлено глибокий аналіз поступу України у впровадженні реформ багаторівневого управління та досліджено роль місцевих органів влади в управлінні катастрофою. Виходячи з цього, у звіті рекомендуються можливі шляхи використання Україною разом з міжнародними партнерами багаторівневого управління, регіонального розвитку і децентралізації для підтримки процесів місцевої відбудови та відновлення з метою вирішення нагальних гуманітарних потреб, відновлення місцевої економіки та громад, а також посилення їхньої стійкості.


Russia’s war against Ukraine is causing a humanitarian, social and economic crisis for the Ukrainian people. The consequences of this full-scale military invasion are disrupting the global supply of commodities, sharply increasing food and energy prices, and threating the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries with established commercial and financial ties with the economies of Russia and Ukraine appear to be particularly vulnerable.

Assessing the Impact of Russia’s War against Ukraine on Eastern Partner Countries investigates the exposure of Eastern Partner countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Republic of Moldova and Ukraine) to the economic shocks caused by the war, and in particular through the impact that the conflict is having on inflation, migration, remittances, investment and trade.

This report is published as part of the multi-country project “EU4Business: From Policies to Action – phase 2”, implemented in the Eastern Partnership with the financial support of the European Union within the EU4Business initiative.

Ця політична рекомендація висвітлює, як реформи регіонального розвитку та децентралізації в Україні, прийняті після революції на Майдані 2014 року, сприяли підвищенню стійкості регіонів та муніципалітетів країни після агресивної війни Росії проти України. Базуючись на звіті ОЕСР « Відбудовуємо Україну через зміцнення регіонального та муніципального управління », у ньому також пояснюється, як досягнення реформ багаторівневого врядування в Україні після 2014 року можуть стати підґрунтям для ефективної субнаціональної реконструкції та відновлення. Насамкінець, у ньому представлені конкретні рекомендації щодо того, як політики можуть використовувати місцевий досвід і надалі нарощувати субнаціональний потенціал для розробки та впровадження проектів реконструкції та відстеження прогресу, а також сприяти довгостроковому стійкому регіональному та місцевому розвитку.

英語, フランス語

This policy response highlights how Ukraine’s regional development and decentralisation reforms, adopted after the 2014 Maidan Revolution, have contributed to the resilience of the country’s regions and municipalities following Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine. Based on the OECD report Rebuilding Ukraine by Reinforcing Regional and Municipal Governance, it also sets forth how the achievements of Ukraine’s post-2014 multi-level governance reforms can provide the stepping stones for an effective subnational reconstruction and recovery. Finally, it presents concrete recommendations on how policymakers can leverage local expertise and further build subnational capacities to design and implement reconstruction projects and track progress, as well as contribute to longer-term sustainable regional and local development.

ウクライナ語, フランス語

Cette note met en évidence la manière dont les réformes de développement régional et de décentralisation en Ukraine, adoptées après la révolution de Maïdan de 2014, ont contribué à la résilience des régions et municipalités du pays après la guerre d'agression de la Russie contre l'Ukraine. Basé sur le rapport de l'OCDE Rebuilding Ukraine by Reinforcing Regional and Municipal Governance (Reconstruire l'Ukraine en renforçant la gouvernance régionale et municipale), cette note démontre également la manière dont les réformes de gouvernance à plusieurs niveaux en Ukraine, mises en œuvre après 2014, peuvent servir de levier pour une reconstruction et une reprise efficaces au niveau infranational. Enfin, elle présente des recommandations concrètes sur la manière dont les décideurs politiques peuvent s’appuyer sur l’expertise locale et renforcer les capacités au niveau infranational pour concevoir et mettre en œuvre des projets de reconstruction et en suivre les progrès, ainsi que contribuer à un développement régional et local durable à plus long terme.

ウクライナ語, 英語

European Neighbourhood East countries have been actively engaged in improving service delivery for citizens and businesses for some time. Some have opted for flagship initiatives (often with large-scale, one-stop shop solutions), some for digitalisation of services, while some have taken an incremental approach towards the service delivery modernisation process. This comparative paper outlines the state of play in the design and delivery of public administrative services in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Public administrative services cover the vast array of interactions with (and within) government: making enquiries, applications, registrations and payments, and receiving information, documentation, decisions and funds. These contacts allow service users (citizens, businesses and non-governmental organisations) to exercise rights, access entitlements, execute obligations and achieve ambitions. As well as the description and analysis of the general service delivery framework(s), institutional set-up and practical implementation, this paper presents a comparative analysis of a set of life events and highlights inspiring practices from the different countries.

  • 02 Dec 2022
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 338

EU Funded Note

Prior to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022, Ukraine had made significant progress in implementing ambitious regional development and decentralisation reforms. These reforms resulted in the creation of 1 469 amalgamated municipalities, the establishment of an elaborate multi-level regional development planning framework, as well as a significant increase in local public service delivery, and public funding for regional and local development. However, the reforms faced a number of challenges, many of which have been significantly exacerbated by Russia’s war against Ukraine. These challenges include increasing regional economic, demographic and well-being disparities, a fragmented regional development funding framework, as well as marked discrepancies in municipal administrative, human resource and fiscal capacity. This report presents an in-depth analysis of Ukraine’s progress in implementing its multi-level governance reforms and explores the role of subnational governments in disaster management. From there, it recommends how Ukraine, together with international partners, can use multi-level governance, regional development and decentralisation to support subnational reconstruction and recovery to address urgent humanitarian needs, rebuild local economies and communities, and strengthen their resilience.


Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine is demonstrating the new role of commercial space systems in crisis management. The improved availability of commercial satellite data and signals is contributing to the quality and resilience of government systems, with telecommunications and follow-ups of military actions and impacts on the ground for civilians. But the war has also revealed vulnerabilities of space infrastructure and in global supply chains. It also unleashed a series of new threats, notably unanticipated third-party uses of satellite data and disruptions of civilian telecommunications. Furthermore, the current geopolitical situation raises questions about the future of international co-operation in space activities, at a time when it is urgently needed to collectively manage the use of orbital resources. This policy note includes OECD recommendations for policy responses to improve the resilience of space infrastructure, manage access to and use of data and signals and ensure long-term sustainability of space activities.

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