OECD’s periodic surveys of the Spanish economy. Each edition surveys the major challenges faced by the country, evaluates the short-term outlook, and makes specific policy recommendations. Special chapters take a more detailed look at specific challenges. Extensive statistical information is included in charts and graphs.


Études économiques consacrées périodiquement par l'OCDE à l’économie de l’Espagne. Chaque étude analyse les grands enjeux auxquels le pays fait face. Elle examine les perspectives à court terme et présente des recommandations détaillées à l’intention des décideurs politiques. Des chapitres thématiques analysent des enjeux spécifiques. Les tableaux et graphiques contiennent un large éventail de données statistiques.


This paper provides an overview of the ocean economy in the EU Outermost Regions (EU ORs). It discusses the opportunities and challenges that the EU ORs are facing in light of emerging global trends, laying out priority actions for making the ocean a factor of competitiveness and internationalisation. Such actions could be taken together with EU and basin-specific partners such as Small Island Developing States in the Caribbean, Atlantic and Indian Ocean. The paper is developed within the framework of the EU-OECD project on Global Outermost Regions.

This paper provides a snapshot of the development of renewable energies in the European Union Outermost Regions (EU ORs), focusing on their potential to contribute to the green transition while creating sustainable economic development opportunities. It reviews the policy frameworks and tools in place in EU ORs with respect to renewable energies, and provides specific policy recommendations. The paper is developed within the framework of the EU-OECD project on Global Outermost Regions.

This paper explores the innovation dynamics of the EU Outermost Regions (EU ORs) through patenting behaviour. It emphasises the potential for international collaborations with a wide range of partners, and recommends to mobilise the resources and strategies provided by the EU to strengthen research and innovation in the private sector; enhance the impact of public research centres and universities; and foster intra-regional co-operation. It also calls for stronger ties with African countries, the Latin American and Caribbean region, as well as Small Island Developing States (SIDS), to foster innovation-based collaborations, particularly around sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and the ocean economy. The paper is developed within the framework of the EU-OECD project on Global Outermost Regions.

This paper provides an overview of agro-food value chains in the EU Outermost Regions (EU ORs). It assesses emerging trends, discusses opportunities and challenges, reviews the policy frameworks and tools that can strengthen the beneficial participation of EU ORs in international agro-food value chains, and proposes priority actions. The paper is developed within the framework of the EU-OECD project on Global Outermost Regions.

  • 25 Oct 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 136

Spain implemented sizable measures to cushion the impact of the pandemic and of the inflationary shock after Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine. The economy has held up well, but public debt, which was already high, has increased because of the pandemic, making it urgent to step up the pace of fiscal consolidation. Public policy should continue to address Spain’s structural weaknesses. Growth potential is low and will remain so with the rapid ageing of the population. Fulfilling the country’s objectives to fight climate change will require a strong and broad commitment in favour of a cleaner energy mix and a more environment-friendly tax regime. Unemployment remains the highest in the OECD and the integration of young people into the job market remains challenging, although recent reforms have reduced the high share of temporary contracts. Improving educational and labour market outcomes among the young should entail strengthening the connection between the educational system and the labour market, supporting students at risk of falling behind, improving career counselling, and providing a more efficient public employment service. Boosting the low level of entrepreneurship among young people requires additional financial and educational support. More social rental housing in stressed areas would facilitate access to housing for young people.


La cooperazione internazionale allo sviluppo sta transitando da un modello tradizionale incentrato sullo scambio unilaterale tra donatore e beneficiario a un approccio fondato sul partenariato, che sempre più spesso coinvolge anche regioni e città. Il Friuli Venezia Giulia, una piccola regione dell'Italia nord-orientale che gode di un’ampia autonomia politica, è attivo da tempo nella cooperazione internazionale e ambisce a ottenere maggiori benefici dalle sue iniziative, sia per la comunità regionale che per i partner con cui coopera a livello internazionale. Questo studio analizza la sua strategia sul partenariato e la cooperazione internazionale e propone raccomandazioni per un suo rafforzamento. Tra queste spicca l’invito a concentrare le risorse su iniziative che sfruttino le aree di specializzazione regionale per ottenere un maggiore impatto nei paesi partner e a livello locale.


In recent years, international development co-operation has undergone a transition from a conventional donor-recipient model to a partnership-centred approach, including with regions and cities. Friuli Venezia Giulia, a small region in north-eastern Italy with extensive policy autonomy, has been active in international co-operation and is seeking to get more out of its actions both for the region and with its co-operation partners around the world. This paper evaluates its strategy on international partnership and co-operation and proposes recommendations, including more targeted initiatives that leverage the expertise of the region for greater impact in partner countries and for local benefits.


EU Funded Note

Spain has a high share of the working age population at risk of poverty or social exclusion and a high incidence of child poverty. While Spain has introduced a minimum income at the national level, social inclusion policies are the responsibility of the regions. At present, the coverage of the minimum income remains low and there are many differences in the design and implementation of social inclusion policies across regions, especially as a number of regions do not develop social inclusion strategies. There is also a lack of a multidimensional approach to social inclusion. This report develops options for new inclusion models that address current challenges and help formulate a coherent inclusion strategy. It also sets out a blueprint for developing a monitoring and evaluation framework. The recommendations aim to increase the effectiveness of minimum income policies and strengthen the co-ordination between social services, employment, health and housing.

This paper provides an assessment of the 2019 minimum-wage hike in Spain, which increased the minimum wage by 22% and directly concerned 7% of dependent employees. The assessment is based on an individual-level analysis that follows the outcomes of workers that were employed in the year before the reform over time. Among directly affected workers, the hike in the minimum wage increased full-time equivalent monthly earnings by on average 5.8% and reduced employment by -0.6%. The wage effects are stronger for workers on open-ended contracts, while the employment effects are stronger for workers on fixed-term contracts.

  • 05 Jul 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 151

The Rethinking Regional Attractiveness in the New Global Environment report highlights lessons learned from multiple regional case studies from five EU countries (Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Sweden), additional work with Latin American and Caribbean regions, and a series of webinars and one-on-one dialogues on rethinking regional attractiveness. The OECD’s innovative multidimensional approach to assessing regional attractiveness considers global engagement beyond international connections and economic factors alone. The methodology considers more than 50 indicators to develop regional attractiveness profiles covering six domains of attractiveness: economic attraction, connectedness, visitor appeal, natural environment, resident well-being, and land-use and housing.

The report helps regional and national policy makers to understand how individual regions fare in a new global environment that continues to deal with the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis, compounded by the consequences of Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine and existing megatrends – all of which produce asymmetric impacts within and between countries and regions – and identify the policy levers available to enhance their attractiveness to the international target groups of investors, talent, and visitors. It also considers the need to co-ordinate across levels of government, across policy fields, and with private stakeholders, and highlights good practices to implement regional attractiveness policies.

  • 28 Jun 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 180

Spain has a dynamic and competitive agro-food sector. However, higher productivity has not always reduced environmental pressures. The agricultural innovation and knowledge system could play a key role in addressing the environmental challenges and improving the sector’s resilience.

Policies for the Future of Farming and Food in Spain undertakes a thorough examination of the Spanish agro-food sector. It applies the OECD Productivity, Sustainability and Resilience (PSR) analytical framework along with the latest data from the OECD Agri-Environmental Indicators to benchmark the country’s sustainable productivity performance and to identify the main challenges facing the sector.

This report proposes a new policy approach, which puts innovation at the centre of a strategy to reconcile environmental performance and productivity growth. Its policy recommendations focus on actions to improve the agricultural knowledge and innovation system and make it more responsive to the most urgent environmental pressures. This requires strengthening the institutional and regulatory framework that supports agricultural innovation and creating incentives to tackle the impediments for a more sustainable and resilient agriculture.

This paper investigates the demand for language skills using data on online job vacancies in 27 European Union member countries and the United Kingdom in 2021. Evidence indicates that although Europe remains a linguistically diverse labour market, knowing English confers unique advantages in certain occupations. Across countries included in the analyses, a knowledge of English was explicitly required in 22% of all vacancies and English was the sixth most required skill overall. A knowledge of German, Spanish, French and Mandarin Chinese was explicitly demanded in between 1% and 2% of all vacancies. One in two positions advertised on line for managers or professionals required some knowledge of English, on average across European Union member countries and across OECD countries in the sample. This compares with only one in ten positions for skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and among elementary occupations.

  • 13 Jun 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 63

El abandono escolar temprano (AET) puede dar lugar a crecientes desafíos individuales y ocasionar elevados costes económicos para los sistemas educativos y las sociedades en general. España ha logrado avances significativos en la reducción del AET en los últimos años; en 2022, la tasa de AET era de 13,9%, casi la mitad de lo observado hace una década. Sin embargo, la tasa media de España sigue siendo de las más elevadas de los países miembros de la OCDE y de la Unión Europea, con notables disparidades regionales. Basándose en la evidencia de la investigación y en las buenas prácticas nacionales e internacionales, y gracias a la contribución de los actores clave del sistema educativo, este informe identifica las fortalezas y los principales desafíos para abordar el AET en España. Determina así cinco áreas de acción y propone una serie de recomendaciones con un enfoque coordinado para reducir el AET en todas las comunidades autónomas y en las ciudades autónomas de Ceuta y Melilla.


Early school leaving (ESL) can lead to mounting individual challenges and generate high economic costs to education systems and societies at large. Spain has made significant progress in reducing ESL in recent years; in 2022, the ESL rate was 13,9% - almost half the points of a decade earlier. However, noteworthy regional disparities remain, and Spain’s average ESL rate remains one of the highest among OECD and EU member countries. Informed by national and international research evidence and good practices, and by the expert contribution of key education stakeholders, this report identifies existing strengths and challenges to address ESL across Spain. It proposes five areas for action that each include a range of evidence-based and actionable recommendations for a coordinated approach to reducing ESL in all autonomous communities and in the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla.

  • 13 Jun 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 100

This reliable and up-to-date source of OECD quarterly balance of payments and international merchandise trade statistics provides a detailed insight into the most recent trends in trading patterns for OECD countries with the rest of the world. Balance of payments data are presented adjusted for seasonal variations. International trade data are broken down by country. The series shown cover data for the last ten quarters and two years available. This quarterly publication is divided into three parts: I. Balance of payments and international trade, II. International merchandise trade by country and III. International trade by commodity (annual data). The third part is a special topic which changes with each publication.

  • 15 May 2023
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 140

In the face of what has increasingly been referred to as an ongoing “permacrisis”, governments must cope with and respond to emerging threats while already grappling with longstanding issues such as climate change, digital disruption and low levels of trust. In this context, understanding new approaches and spreading successful ideas has never been more important. To promote this, the OECD Observatory of Public Sector Innovation (OPSI) has analysed 1 084 innovative initiatives from 94 countries to derive and understand novel government practices. The report discusses four key trends: 1) new forms of accountability for a new era of government, 2) new approaches to care, 3) new methods for preserving identities and strengthening equity and 4) new ways of engaging citizens and residents. Ten case studies and dozens of supporting examples illustrate these trends.

This dataset contains tax revenue collected by Spain. It provides detailed tax revenues by sector (Supranational, Federal or Central Government, State or Lander Government, Local Government, and Social Security Funds) and by specific tax, such as capital gains, profits and income, property, sales, etc.


This dataset includes pension funds statistics with OECD classifications by type of pension plans and by type of pension funds. All types of plans are included (occupational and personal, mandatory and voluntary). The OECD classification considers both funded and book reserved pension plans that are workplace-based (occupational pension plans) or accessed directly in retail markets (personal pension plans). Both mandatory and voluntary arrangements are included. The data includes plans where benefits are paid by a private sector entity (classified as private pension plans by the OECD) as well as those paid by a funded public sector entity. Data are presented in various measures depending on the variable: millions of national currency, millions of USD, thousands or unit.
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