Baltic States

  • 13 Dec 2013
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 144

The Baltic countries have experienced sustained emigration over the past decade, contributing to population decline and a loss of working-age population. The impact of this emigration is felt strongly in the labour market, the general economy and in social developments. How can countries deal with the impact of high levels of emigration? How to attract back emigrants? How best to benefit from the financial, social and human capital developed abroad? The Baltic countries are not alone in addressing these challenges, and this volume brings together the recent experience of Poland and Romania, as well as a wide range of OECD countries, in developing new policies to cope with emigration.

This book provides an internationally comparable set of indicators on the educational provision for students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages (SENDDD). It covers the number of students concerned, their learning environment (special schools, special classes and regular classes) and level of education (pre-primary, compulsory and upper secondary education). It also discusses policy implications vis-à-vis special education needs and offers an analysis of the participation and performance of students with special education needs in the 2006 round of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

  • 01 Mar 2000
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 291

L’étude économique de 2001 consacrée périodiquement aux États baltes fait le point sur la réforme du système bancaire et fiscal, la réforme des entreprises et la restructuration économique ainsi que sur le marché du travail et la politique sociale.

  • 01 Mar 2000
  • OECD
  • ページ数: 266

OECD's 2000 survey of the Baltic economies. This edition includes special features covering banking and financial system reform, enterprise reform and economic restructuring, and labour market and social policy developments in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

Dans les Etats baltes, le processus d’indépendance a commencé après les élections au printemps 1990 et s’est achevé en août 1991. Cinquante et un ans après avoir été forcées de se joindre à l'Union soviétique, l'Estonie, la Lettonie et la Lituanie ont regagné leur indépendance et ces pays ont à nouveau fait partie de la communauté des nations occidentales. L'URSS a disparu fin 1991 et de là 12 nouveaux Etats indépendants ont surgi.
In the Baltic States, the process of independence started after the elections in spring 1990 and was completed by August 1991. Fifty-one years after being forced to join the Soviet Union, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania each regained their independence and became once again part of the western community of nations. The USSR disappeared in late 1991 and from it sprung 12 new independent states.

This chapter analyses the extent and contexts of Baltic migration flows, and sketches a profile of Baltic emigrant populations. The potential economic impact of high negative net migration on these countries is addressed, along with relevant findings from Poland and Romania. Policy strategies and initiatives taken by Baltic States and other emigration countries are presented and discussed. The chapter concludes by identifying areas requiring further research in matters pertaining to rising emigration, its economic impact and the conditions under which diaspora policies contribute to the economic development of home countries.

Interest in the inclusion of students with special educational needs in mainstream education has increased faster than the actual inclusion of these students in standardised assessment and accountability systems. This chapter discusses the participation and performance of students with special education needs in the Baltic and South Eastern European countries (Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, and Slovenia) in PISA 2006. This chapter describes the participation rates by countries and the demographic characteristics of the students with special educational needs as a group, as well as by their disability status. Students’ educational experiences and perceptions are presented as well as their perceptions of their learning behaviours. In general, too few students with special education needs are included in PISA from not enough economies and the conclusions that can be drawn are therefore extremely limited.

Recently an increasing number of countries have established educational policies that allocate extra resources to students who cannot access school curricula as easily as their peers and who have come to be categorised as having disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages. Policies geared towards these students demonstrate positive discrimination and operate on the premise that some students require more resources than others in order to achieve equal access to schools and curricula. The goal of this study is then to identify the students and resources involved, develop an internationally comparable framework and link these results to outcome data in order to impact policies in participating economies.

This chapter provides recommendations based on the need for reforms in the education systems indicated by the data analysed in this book. Providing the correct legal framework for developing inclusive education and the necessary resources and support for students who have special education needs are important elements in developing equitable education systems where all students can benefit as fully as possible from the opportunities education brings. Gathering data is an essential component of developing effective policies and efficient strategies to achieve the goal of inclusive education and to know whether it is being achieved.

This chapter summarises the qualitative data gathered by participating economies via an electronic questionnaire. Country experts reported on legal frameworks and on factors which facilitate or act as barriers to inclusion and equity as well as on definitions of special education for gathering statistics. This chapter also discusses the allocation of categories of students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages included in the resources definition to the tripartite taxonomy. This forms the basis for the subsequent analyses of this report.

This chapter analyses the data based on the national categories used to provide additional resources for students who have difficulties in accessing the curriculum, as supplied by participating economies. It looks at the proportions registered in education statistics in the compulsory phase of education, by individual category of disability, learning difficulty or disadvantage and by location of education (special schools, special classes and regular classes).

Concerns about equity in education, the declining numbers of children and increased demands of the labour market are forcing education systems to take more interest in the educational progress of students who would otherwise under-achieve by offering considerable extra resources to help them learn more effectively. Providing equitable systems of education to promote the development of all children is an important goal for governments.

This chapter provides additional descriptive information on all students with disabilities, learning difficulties and disadvantages enrolled in educational programmes in special schools, special classes and regular classes classified by age and gender. It also discusses the preponderance of numbers of boys over girls in a wide range of analyses (educational setting, cross-national category, age of student, or phase of education).

This chapter looks more closely at the processes leading to data collection and synthesizes the statistics and indicators regarding students with special education needs and those at risk in South Eastern Europe, Malta and the Baltic States based on data provided by three sets of country reports. It provides recommendations for improving data collection and quality efforts so that important questions about participation in education for different groups of students may be answered.

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